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Интерпретация художественного текста - 5

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Cruikshank, George


(b. Sept. 27, 1792, London, Eng.--d. Feb. 1, 1878, London), English artist, caricaturist, and illustrator who, beginning his career with satirical political cartoons and later illustrating topical and children's books, became one of the most prolific and popular masters of his art.
In 1811, when George was still in his teens, he gained opular success with a series of political caricatures that he created for the periodical The Scourge, a Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly. For the next 10 years Cruikshank satirized with fine irreverence the political policies of the Tories and Whigs.
His most famous book illustrations were for the novelist Charles Dickens in the latter's Sketches by "Boz" (1836-37) and Oliver Twist (1838
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Bouguereau, William-Adolphe


(b. Nov. 30, 1825, La Rochelle, Fr.--d. Aug. 19, 1905, La Rochelle), French painter, a dominant figure in his nation's academic painting during the second half of the 19th century.
Bouguereau entered the Scole des Beaux-Arts in 1846 and was awarded the Prix de Rome in 1850. Upon his return to France from four years' study in Italy, he attracted a wide following with his mythological and allegorical paintings, although his portrait paintings are perhaps held in higher esteem today. His work was characterized by a highly finished, technically impeccable realism and a sentimental interpretation of his subject matter. As a proponent of official orthodoxy in painting, he played a major role in the exclusion of the works of the Impressionists and other experimental painters from the Salon. In his later years he decorated the chapels of several Parisian churches and painted religious compositions in a Pre-Raphaelite style. Modern critics tend to assess Bouguereau as a painter who sacrificed boldness of technique and originality of outlook for a highly polished but conventional treatment of the human form.
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Watts, George Frederick


(b. Feb. 23, 1817, London--d. July 1, 1904, Compton, Surrey, Eng.), English painter and sculptor of grandiose allegorical themes. Watts believed that art should preach a universal message, but his subject matter, conceived in terms of vague abstract ideals, is full of symbolism that is often obscure and today seems superficial.
^ Rossetti, Dante Gabriel,
original name GABRIEL CHARLES DANTE ROSSETTI (b. May 12, 1828, London, Eng.--d. April 9, 1882, Birchington-on-Sea, Kent), English painter and poet who helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of painters treating religious, moral, and medieval subjects in a nonacademic manner.
He acquired some of Brown's admiration for the German "Pre-Raphaelites," the nickname of the austere Nazarenes, who had sought to bring back into German art a pre-Renaissance purity of style and aim. It remained to initiate a similiar reform in England.
Pre-Raphaelites
Largely through Rossetti's efforts, the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed in 1848 with seven members, all Royal Academy students except for William Michael Rossetti. They aimed at "truth to nature," which was to be achieved by minuteness of detail and painting from nature outdoors. This was, more especially, the purpose of the two other principal members, William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti expanded the Brotherhood's aims by linking poetry, painting, and social idealism and by interpreting the term Pre-Raphaelite as synonymous with a romanticized medieval past.
^ Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group of young British painters who banded together in 1848 in reaction against what they conceived to be the unimaginative and artificial historical painting of the Royal Academy and who purportedly sought to express a new moral seriousness and sincerity in their works. They were inspired by Italian art of the 14th and 15th centuries, and their adoption of the name Pre-Raphaelite expressed their admiration for what they saw as the direct and uncomplicated depiction of nature typical of Italian painting before the High Renaissance and, particularly, before the time of Raphael. Although the Brotherhood's active life lasted less than 10 years, its influence on painting in Britain, and ultimately on the decorative arts and interior design, was profound.
. The style evolved featured sharp and brilliant lighting, a clear atmosphere, and a near-photographic reproduction of minute details. They also frequently introduced a private poetic symbolism into their epresentations of Biblical subjects and medieval literary themes.
2014-07-19 18:44
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