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Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 1 курса неязыковых экономических вузов Рекомендовано редакционно-издательским советом Орелгиэт - 15

^

LESSON 4

.

Education

Grammar: Словообразование

Phonetics:

Интонация

.

Нисходяще

-

восходящий

тон

.


1. Read the text ”

Education”

and translate it into Russian.


Education IN CANADA
There are three types of school in Canada: public, private and Catholic. According to the law education is obligatory from kids from the age of 6-7 till 15-16 years old. Education is usually free of charge, parents have to pay only for education in private schools. The supreme authority for school is a Department of Education of a province.
Unlike all the other highly developed countries, Canada does not have a nation - wide state system of education: the constitution gives each province the right to choose its own curriculum. Every provincial educational system, though similar to other, reflects region, history and culture of the province. The chiefs of provincial departments of education headed by the elected minister, establish standards, approve subject and finance educational establishments. Local elected school councils are responsible for primary and secondary schools. They plan school budgets, employ teachers and establish school timetables according to the requirements of the provincial legislation.
Private schools are organized in forms of systems and associations. The most famous association is Montessori. Private schools seldom advertise themselves. There is a rather high competition to enter them. In some private schools they admit children even before the birth. Middle class makes a significant part of Canadian population, therefore the number of parents wishing to send their kids to elite schools is constantly increasing.
The school year in Canada being on the first Tuesday of September immediately after the Labor Day celebration on September, 1 and finishes at the end of June. It is divided into four terms, school vacations between them last no more than a week. In Alberta, there is typically 2 weeks vacation at Christmas and 1 week at Easter. The number of terms a school has depends on the decisions of the school. It could be 2 semesters, three terms or 4 terms.
In primary schools children study from grade 1 to grade 6. In secondary school or junior high - from grade 7 to grade 9 and in high school - from grade 10 to grade 12. Education is compulsory only in primary and secondary school. High school grades are divided into levels which differ from each other by whether they prepare to universities or not.
Canadian curriculum is very flexible: each student has a right to choose subjects to study at school. If a student achieves good results in a subject, it is possible for him to get a higher degree.
5,000,000 students attend public schools in Canada, one fourth of them study at Catholic schools, a quarter of a million study at private schools.
Private schools have the right to establish and take own exams, both intermediate and final. In some provinces there is a certification system of graduates, if a graduate does not get a necessary minimum of percents at final exams, he is not admitted to continue his education at a college or university.
The government of Canada adopted a program of students' grants, according to it more than 100,000 students will get educational grants in 2000-2010. The average of the grant is 3,000 Canadian dollars a year, so each student can get 15,000 dollars for 4 academic years. These grants could reduce expenses on education on a half.
Canada surpasses all the countries in the world by expenses on education per one citizen. The large amount of educated people in Canada (more than a half of Canadians continue their education after they have reached the age of 15) enables to support and even raise the living standards and approves that it is the country where intellectual progress is appreciated and encouraged.

^ Vocabulary on the text


admit,

v ‒ 1) допускать; принимать

advertise ‒

1) рекламировать 2) помещать объявление (в СМИ)

appreciate,

v

1) оценивать, (высоко) ценить; быть признательным, благодарным 2) понимать, принимать во внимание

approve,

v

1) утверждать (план, постановление); санкционировать 2) показывать (что-л.) на деле; проявлять себя

approve,

v

утверждать (план, постановление); санкционировать

association,

n

1) ассоциация, общество, союз (Syn: confederation, society) 2) ассоциация, сообщество

compulsory,

adj. ‒ принудительный; насильственный; обязательный compulsory education - обязательное обучение (Syn: binding, imperative, mandatory, obligatory) (Ant: optional, unnecessary)

council,

n

совет

curriculum,

n

курс обучения, учебный план (в образовательном учреждении)

depend,

v

‒ (on

) зависеть, находиться в зависимости (от кого-л., чего-л.)

differ,

v

(

from

)

отличаться (от кого-л., чего-л.; в чём-л.); различаться (чем-л.)

encourage ‒

ободрять; поощрять, поддерживать (в чём-л.) (Syn: foster, promote, support) (Ant: discourage, dishearten, hinder)

establish,

v

1) учреждать (Syn: set up) 2) устанавливать (отношения) 3) устанавливать (какой-л. факт) (Syn: ascertain)

establishment,

n

учреждение, организация

expense,

n

1) а) затрата, расход (Syn: expenditure) б) (expenses) расход, издержки, трата, затрата (Syn: outgo, cost, outlay) 2) стоимость, цена (Syn: price)

half,

n

половина, одна вторая (чего-л.)


flexible,

adj.

1) гибкий 2) податливый, легко приспосабливаемый; гибкий (Syn: adaptable))

graduate ‒

1

.

n

а) выпускник университета б) выпускник учебного заведения (школы, колледжа, университета) college graduate - выпускник колледжа high-school graduate - выпускник средней школы
2. v

1) оканчивать (высшее учебное заведение) 2) а) оканчивать (учебное заведение) (любое) б) выдавать диплом, выпускать (об университете)

make,

v

1) составлять, образовывать 2) составлять, равняться 3) быть, являться (частью, членом чего-л.)

minister,

n

‒ министр

obligatory,

adj.

1) непременный, обязательный (Syn: compulsory) 2) обязывающий

reduce,

v

ослаблять, понижать, сокращать, уменьшать. (Syn: curtail, diminish, lower, lessen) (Ant: enhance, enlarge, raise)

reflect,

v

отражать

requirement,

n

требование; необходимое условие

support,

v – поддерживать; содержать (материально); обеспечивать

therefore,

conj.

по этой причине; вследствие этого; поэтому, следовательно (Syn: consequently, and so)

be responsible for

‒ быть ответственным за что-л.

certification system ‒

система сертификации

final exams

‒ выпускные экзамены (в университете)

free of charge ‒

бесплатно, даром (Syn: gratis)

intermediate exams ‒

промежуточный экзамен (в некоторых университетах)

supreme authority ‒

верховная власть

Phonetic exercises


2. Read the sentences with rising-falling tone.


- коррекция, уточнение:


I believe his name is Philip. - David.
Я полагаю, его зовут Филипп. - Давид.

- мягкое, дружелюбное возражение:


I am afraid that's not so.
Боюсь, что это не так.

- сомнение, предположение:


What colour is her dress? It may be grey.
Какого цвета её платье? Возможно, оно серое.

- контраст, противопоставление:


I have a lot of Russian books, but no French books.
У меня много русских книг, но нет французских.

^ Grammar exercises


3. Give 3 forms of the following verbs.


To b

e, to pay, to have, to do, to give, to choose, to make, to send, to begin, to get, to take.


4.Distribute the words into groups according to the part of speech.


Education, educate, educational, constitution, constitute,

province, provincial, establishment, establish, requirement, require,respond, responsible, association, associate, competition, compete, competitive, certificate,certification, celebration, celebrate, constant, constantly, timetable, intellect, high, highly,immediate, immediately, intellectual.


5. Finish sentences using the words in brackets in a proper form.



        1. (Educate) is obligatory from the age of 6-7 till 15-16 years old.



        2. Canada is one of the (high) developed countries in the world.



        3. (Constit

          ute) gives each province the right to choose its own curriculum.



        4. The chief (province) departments of education establish standards and finance (education) (establish).



        5. T

          here is a (compete) to enter private school.



6. Insert prepositions.


A. The role … religion … Canadian education has been controversial … centuries. The first schools in New France were operated … the church. … the early nineteenth century the colonial governments moved to set … publicly funded education system. However, soon religious divisions became problematic. … the time religious study was considered an integral part … education, but Protestants and Catholics were deeply divided … how this education should be delivered.


The earliest Canadian schools, which were conducted … French Catholic religious orders, date … the early 17

-th

century. Higher education was inaugurated … 1635 … the founding of the College des Jesuites … the city of Quebec.


B. Education is generally compulsory … children … ages 6 or 7 … ages 15 or 16, depending … the province … which they live, and it is free until the completion of secondary school studies. … the early 1990s Canada had more than 16,000 elemen

tary and secondary schools, … a total enrollment … nearly 5.3 million students.


In the early 1990s Canada maintained 19 specialized schools … the blind and the deaf. These institutions together enrolled … 2400 pupils, who were instructed … some 575 teachers. Canada had several schools … mentally handicapped children.


^ 7. Insert the modal verbs “can”, “may”, or “must”.


1. Schools in Canada … be divided into public, private and Catholic.
2. Education is compulsory in Canada. Children from the age of 6-7 till 15-16 … attend schools.
3. If a student achieves good results in a subject he … get a higher degree.
4. According to the law students … choose subjects to study.
5. If middle class parents have enough money they … send their kids to elite schools.
6. In private schools parents … pay for education.
7. Having great success in study students … get grants.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises


8. Give Russian equivalents.


According to the law, a nation-wide system of education, curriculum, a certification system of graduates, students’ grants, free of charge, compulsory, intermediate e

xams, public schools, private schools, Catholic schools, to finance educational establishments.


9.

Give

English

equivalents

.


Обязательный, бесплатный, высший орган власти, в отличие от, давать право, отражать культуру, устанавливать стандарты, образовательные учреждения, планировать бюджет, составлять значительную часть, длиться, обязательное образование, отличаться друг от друга, гибкий учебный план, достигать хор

оших результатов, по предмету, принимать экзамен, образовательный грант, превосходить, расходы на образование, подтверждать, интеллектуальное развитие.


10. Match the words which are close in their meaning.



compulsory



expenditure



encourage



consequently



establish



raise



expense



obligatory



therefore



set up




^ 11. Answer the questions on the text. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.



The text tells the reader that…


I think…


I suppose…


If I got it right…


It seems to me that …


In my opinion …



1. What types of schools are there in Canada?
2. Is education always free of charge?
3. Is there a nation-wide system of education in Canada?
4. What rights does the constitution give each province?
5. How are private schools organized?
6. When does the school year begin and finish?
7. How is the school year divided into?
8. Is education compulsory in Canada?
9. Do all students study the same obligatory subjects?
10. Who can continue his or her education at a college or university?
11. How does the government of Canada help its students?

^ 12. Agree or disagree. Correct wrong statements.


I (quite) agree (with you). I don’t think so.


I think so too. I don’t agree.


Certainly! I think you are mistaken.


Just so. You are wrong


1. There are only public schools in Canada.
2. Parents have to pay for education in all schools.
3. Canada has a nation-wide system of education.
4. Each province has the right to choose its own curriculum.
5. It is rather easy to enter private schools.
6. The school year is divided into four terms.
7. Canadian curriculum is divided into grades.
8. Each student has to study the same obligatory subjects.
9. Most students attend private schools.
10. The students are supported by the government.

^ 13. Arrange the sentences according to the text.


1. The government of Canada adopted a program of students’ grants.
2. The school year is divided into four terms.
3. Canada surpasses all the countries in the world by expenses on education per one citizen.
4. In Canada there are three types of schools: private, public and Catholic.
5. Many parents wish to send their kids to elite schools.
6. Canada doesn’t have a nation-wide state system of education.
7. Canadian curriculum is very flexible: each student has a right to choose subjects to study at school.
8. These grants could reduce expenses on education on a half.
9. Private schools are organized in forms of systems and associations.
10. According to the Constitution each province has the right to choose its own curriculum.
11. Private schools have the right to establish and take own exams, both intermediate and finish.
12. Every provincial educational system reflects province’s peculiarities.
13. The number of terms a school has depends on the decisions of the school.

^ 14. Complete the following sentences according to the text.


1. The types of schools in Canada are …
2. Education in Canada is …
3. In Canada there isn’t …
4. Every provincial educational system …
5. Private schools …
6. In primary schools …
7. Canadian curriculum …
8. The government of Canada …
9. Canada surpasses …

^ 15. Read the text and find answers to the following questions.


1. How is education in Canada?
2. Up to what age is eduvation compulsory?
3. What languages is education available in Canada?
4. What subjects and programs are included in the curriculum?

Education in Canada


Education in Canada is a state-run system of public education provided, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province. Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs. Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 school days in the year, officially starting from September (after Labour Day) to the end of June (usually the last Friday of the month, except in some cases in Quebec when it is just before June 24 – the provincial holiday).
Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and there are many variations between the provinces. Some educational fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. Kindergarten (or its equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial funding, and the number of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at age six or seven, there is universal publicly funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). Dependent on the province the age of mandatory entry is at 4–7 years. Children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen (eighteen in Ontario and New Brunswick). About one out of ten Canadians does not have a high school diploma – one in seven has a university degree – the adult population that is without a high school diploma is a combination of both immigrant and Canadian-born. In many places, publicly-funded high school courses are offered to the adult population. The ratio of high school graduates versus non diploma-holders is changing rapidly, partly due to changes in the labour market that require people to have a high school diploma and, in many cases, a university degree.
Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education. Since the adoption of section 23 of the Constitution Act, 1982, education in both English and French has been available in most places across Canada (if the population of children speaking the minority language justifies it), although French Second Language education/French Immersion is available to anglophone students across Canada. According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent eligible residents in Canada.
Most schools have introduced one or more initiatives such as programs in Native studies, antiracism, Aboriginal cultures and crafts; visits by elders and other community members; and content in areas like indigenous languages, Aboriginal spirituality, indigenous knowledge of nature, and tours to indigenous heritage sites. Although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. "The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of people's cognition through the guiding of accommodations of individuals to their natural environment and their changing social order." Finally, "some scholars view academics as a form of "soft power" helping to educate and to create positive attitudes." Furthermore, "subjects that typically get assessed (i.e., language arts, mathematics, and science) assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects (i.e., music, visual arts, and physical education) or facets of the curriculum (i.e., reading and writing versus speaking and listening)." The students in the Canadian school system receive a variety of classes that are offered to them. The system is set up to meet the diverse needs of the individual student.

16.

Render

into

English


Образовательная система в Канаде состоит из десяти провинциальных и двух территориальных систем, которые включают государственные, частные и католические школы. По закону дети обязаны посещать школу с 6 или 7 лет до 15 или 16 лет. Чтобы обеспечить этот процесс, все государственные средние школы финансируются из бюджета.
В отличие от других развитых стран, у Канады нет общегосударственной системы образования: по конституции каждая провинция сама занимается этим вопросом..
Центральное правительство играет жизненно важную роль в системе образования. Оно обеспечивает финансовую поддержку высшим учебным заведениям и преподаванию двух официальных языков страны — английскому и французскому. Вдобавок, оно отвечает за образование коренных жителей Канады, военных и членов их семей, а также заключенных. В целом, центральное правительство оплачивает до 20% ежегодных затрат страны на образование.
Канада стоит на первом месте по уровню расходов на образование в расчете на душу населения. Высокий уровень образованных людей в Канаде (более половины жителей страны продолжают учиться после достижения 15 лет) успешно поддерживает и повышает уровень жизни канадцев и репутацию страны как места, где ценят и поощряют интеллектуальный рост.

17. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 4. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.


Public schools, private schools, Catholic schools, according to the law, to be obligatory from … till, free of charge, a nation-wide state system of education, the right to choose its own curriculum, to be organized in forms of systems and associations, to be divided into, primary schools, secondary schools, a certification system of graduates, students’ grants, to be responsible for, intermediate exams.
2014-07-19 18:44
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