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Учебное пособие Кожарская Е. Э., Козлова О. Н., Колесников Б. М., Даурова Ю. А., Сурганова Т. В., Секретева О. А. 2011 - 31


^ 2. Match the adjectives with the nouns to construct word combinations. Use three of these word combinations in your own sentences.



buccal
salivary
radiant
digestive
direct
rectangular
flattened
marine
wide
vertical
central
nervous
reproductive
radial

tract
tip
world
movement
system
organ
axis
cavity
contact
pupil
symmetry
range
glands
energy

^ 3. Choose the correct word to complete the text.


formed less skin walking to give environment freezing relatively swimming spending prey blood breeds tissue remains insulation coat reaches den circulates relatives to transmit features insulating reduces supplying enable absorbing


^ Polar bear


The polar bear

lives in the Arctic, …………… much of its time on snow and ice. Several physical …………… contribute to its adaptation to this cold …………… . It is a very large bear, which means that the ratio of its surface area to its volume is …………… small. The relatively small surface area means that the polar bear loses proportionately …………… heat than its more southerly…………… . Also its ears are small, another feature which …………… heat loss.
It has a thick …………… with long loosely packed сoarse hairs (guard hairs) and a denser layer of shorter wooly hairs forming an ………….. layer. The long hairs are oily and water-repellant and ………… the bear to shake off water when it emerges from a spell of ………….. .
The principal thermal …………… comes from a 19 cm layer of fat (blubber) beneath the …………. . The thermal conductivity of fat is little different from any other …………… but it has a limited blood supply. This means that very little warm blood …………… close to the skin surface.
The hollow hairs of the white fur are thought …………… the sun's heat to the black skin below. Black is an efficient colour for …………… heat. The white colour is also probably an effective camouflage when hunting its …………… , mainly seals.
A specific adaptation to …………… on snow and ice is the heat-exchange arrangement in the limbs. The arteries …………… the feet run very close to the veins returning ………… to the heart. Heat from the arteries is transferred to the veins before the blood …………… the feet. So, little heat is lost from the feet but their temperature is maintained above …………. point

,

preventing frost-bite.
The polar bear …………… in winter when temperatures fall well below zero. However, the pregnant female excavates a …………… in the snow in which …………… birth and rear her two cubs. In this way the cubs are protected from the extreme cold. The female …………… in the den for about 140 days, suckling her young on the rich milk which is …………… from her fat reserves.

^ 4. Give terms corresponding to the following definitions.


1. Plants and trees.
2. Process in which the plant produces chemical energy (in the form of sugars) from water, minerals, and carbon dioxide with the aid of pigments and the radiant energy of the Sun,
3. The process of the transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma.
4. The system that anchors the plant and absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
5. A specialized conducting system for the transport of water, minerals, and food materials.
6. The nutrient element that is necessary to make amino acids, nucleic acids and proteins.
7. An enzyme co-factor important in making plant cell walls.
8. The light-sensitive membrane that lines the back wall of the eyeball and is composed of several layers, including one containing the rods and cones.
9. Animals without backbones.
10. Numerous pigment-filled bags with the help of which cephalopods change color.
11. One of the oldest living creatures in the world existed on the face of this planet since before the dinosaurs.
12. Any member of a group of vertebrate animals in which the young are nourished with milk from special secreting glands of the mother.
13. Any of the most numerous of existing mammals, characterized by upper and lower pairs of ever-growing rootless incisor teeth.
14. A baby of dolphins.

^ 5. Describe any plant.


6. Translate from Russian into English.


Приручение и одомашнивание млекопитающих, начатое в глубокой древности, продолжается и сейчас, хотя виды зверей находятся на разной степени одомашнивания и приручения. Полностью одомашненными надо считать те виды, которые хорошо подчиняются человеку и свободно размножаются в неволе. Таковы, например, собака, лошадь, рогатый скот и многие другие. Однако бывает и так, когда указанные два условия не совпадают. Тысячелетия назад были приручены слоны, послушно выполняющие разнообразные работы. Но в неволе слоны практически не размножаются. Львы и тигры хорошо размножаются в неволе, но не приручаются к человеку и не могут считаться одомашненными животными. В малой мере одомашнены некоторые пушные звери, хотя в клетках они успешно размножаются. Таковы песцы, лисицы, норки, соболи и некоторые другие. Пушное звероводство возникло менее ста лет назад, и число видов, разводимых в неволе, продолжает увеличиваться. Сравнительно недавно стали разводить норок и шиншилл. Однако в результате направленного подбора и отбора, зная законы наследования признаков, за короткий срок удалось вывести ряд новых пород. Таковы, например, серебристо-черная лисица и разнообразные цветные породы норок.

TEST 4 (Units 10 – 12).


^ 1. Using different prefixes and suffixes create new words.


Consume, cell, solution, respect, characterize, modify, science, relative, compose, stable, direct, produce.

2. Match the verbs with the nouns to construct word combinations. Use three of these word combinations in your own sentences.



to classify
to propose
to meet
to formulate
to build
to advance
to embody
to collect
to crash
to obtain
to seek
to affect
to consider
to provide

the attitudes
food
concepts
the cycles
a reputation
factors
animals
a compromise
a theory
a theory
a crop
needs
grains
nutrients

^ 3. Choose the correct word to complete the text.


enzymes RNA replication multicellular species unfolding to mean closely prokaryotes similar translation genetic fungi nucleic replicating celled studying independently eukaryotes evidence capabilities include transcription


^ A Brief History of Life


Biologists …………… evolution do a variety of things: population geneticists study the process as it is occurring; systematists seek to determine relationships between ………….. and paleontologists seek to uncover details of the ………….. of life in the past. Discerning these details is often difficult, but hypotheses can be made and tested as new …………… comes to light.
The first …………. molecules were most likely RNA. RNA is a …………… acid similar to DNA. In laboratory studies it has been shown that some RNA sequences have catalytic …………… . Most importantly, certain RNA sequences act as polymerases – …………… that form strands of RNA from its monomers. This process of self …………… is the crucial step in the formation of life. This is called the RNA world hypothesis.
The common ancestor of all life probably used RNA as its …………… material. This ancestor gave rise to three major lineages of life. These are: the …………… ("ordinary" bacteria), archaebacteria (thermophilic, methanogenic and halophilic bacteria) and eukaryotes. Eukaryotes …………… protists (single …………… organisms like amoebas and diatoms and a few …………… forms such as kelp), ………….. (including mushrooms and yeast), plants and animals.
Eukaryotes and archaebacteria are the two most …………… related of the three. The process of …………… (making protein from the instructions on a messenger RNA template) is …………… in these lineages, but the organization of the genome and …………… (making messenger RNA from a DNA template) is very different in prokaryotes than in …………… and archaebacteria. Scientists interpret this …………… that the common ancestor was RNA based; it gave rise to two lineages that …………… formed a DNA genome and hence independently evolved mechanisms to transcribe DNA into …………… .

^ 4. Explain the relationship between the following words.


fungus – yeast;
mold – penicillin;
Darvin – evolution;
Lamarck – transformism;
ecosystem – pond;
food chain – detritus pathway.

5. Describe any ecosystem.


6. Translate from Russian into English.


Грибы широко распространены и обитают почти во всех климатических районах. Грибы можно обнаружить в почве, пресной и соленой воде. Распространенность грибов. Благодаря огромному разнообразию и исключительной способности к выживанию в разных климатических условиях грибы распространены повсеместно. Они сохраняют жизнеспособность даже при низкой температуре. Их мало лишь в засушливых и высокогорных районах, где недостаточно влаги и кислорода.
Грибы, обитающие в домах, часто служат причиной круглогодичных аллергических заболеваний. В жилых помещениях грибов особенно много в старой мебельной обивке, комнатных увлажнителях воздуха, на занавесках для душа, сантехнике, в мусорных баках, пищевых отходах, сырых подвалах.
По типу питания грибы делятся на грибы - сапрофиты и грибы - паразиты. По морфологическим признакам все грибы делятся на грибы дрожжевые и грибы мицелиальные. Плесень - это расположенные на поверхности питательного субстрата органы размножения разных видов грибов.

TEST 5 (Units 13 – 15).


^ 1. Write synonyms and antonyms to the following words.





Synonym

Antonym

predator





abundant





to emit





strong





sheer





precipitation





to alter





outer





to begin





to influence





quixotic





obvious





^ 2. Make questions out of the words. Then answer them.



  1. extinction / When/ occur / does ?

  2. functions / are / forests / What / the main / of ?

  3. prey / inconspicuous /What / predators / and / features / to render / do /have?

  4. environment / adapted / What / to / of / is / the camel / kind ?

  5. conservation / do / wildlife / include / What / techniques?

  6. extinction / the world / mammals / has / through / How many / lost ?

^ 3. Choose the correct word to complete the text.


contain over lineages referred to threatened to be since natural terrestrial times extinctions disappeared estimated increasingly occur continents to survive history current geological


to represent expected appeared broadleaf located immortal


Species Extinction. A natural – and unnatural – process.


The world is, and always has been, in a state of flux. Over hundreds of millions of years, …………… have broken apart, oceans …………… , mountains formed and worn away. With …………… change come changes in living things: species, populations, and whole …………… disappear, and new ones emerge.
Extinction is therefore a …………… process. According to the fossil record, no species has yet proved …………… ; as few as 2-4% of the species that have ever lived are believed …………… today. The remainder are extinct, the vast majority having …………… long before the arrival of humans.
But the rapid loss of species we are seeing today is …………… by experts to be between 1000 and 10,000 ………….. higher than the “background” or ………….. natural extinction rate (a highly conservative estimate). Unlike the mass extinction events of geological history, the ………….. extinction phenomenon is one for which a single species - ours - appears …………… almost wholly responsible. This is often …………… as “the sixth extinction crisis”, after the five known extinction waves in geological …………… .
The number of species known to be …………… with extinction has topped 16,928. Most threatened species …………… in the tropics, especially on mountains and on islands. Most threatened birds, mammals, and amphibians are …………… in Central and South America; Africa south of the Sahara; and tropical South and Southeast Asia. These realms …………… the tropical and subtropical moist …………… forests that are believed to harbour the majority of the earth’s living ………….. and freshwater species. Therefore, the patterns shown for mammals, birds and amphibians are likely …………… most terrestrial taxonomic groups.
Extinctions are becoming …………… common on continents. While the vast majority of extinctions …………… 1500 AD have occurred on oceanic islands, continental extinctions are now as common as island …………… . Roughly 50% of extinctions …………… the past 20 years occurred on continents.

^ 4. Explain the relationship between the following words.


extinction – deforestation;
biodiversity – ecosystem;
community – competition;
mimicry – king snake;
wildlife – sanctuary;
pollution – global warming. 2014-07-19 18:44
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