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Пояснения к тексту - Контрольное задание 1 Для того чтобы правильно выполнить задание 1, необходимо усвоить следующие...


Пояснения к тексту



  1. mechanical engineering - машиностроение

  2. power engineering — энергетика

3. the Unified Power Grid of the USSR - Единая энергосистема СССР
^ SOVIET INDUSTRIAL GROWTH
1. Heavy industry forms the basis, of the USSR's industrial complex. Its development is characterized by a high technological level of production, by the emergence of new branches, including mechanical engineering1 for nuclear power production.
2. The Soviet Union has built powerful atomic electric, stations and has designed new types of reactors which open up fine prospects in atomic power industry. The biggest proton accelerator in the USSR has been launched in Serpukhov. Extensive-work is now being carried out on designing nuclear engines to be used for transport. Much attention is being given to the application of isotopes, radiation and other results of nuclear research in medicine, industry and agriculture.

  1. Soviet power engineering2 comprises high-capacity electric power station forming part of the Unified Power Grid of theUSSR.3 New electric power stations such as the Bratsk Station and the Sayan-Shushenskoye Station have been built in the country. Siberia's power system has been included in the USSR Power Grid which will be able to serve a large part of the territory of the Soviet Union.

  2. Today oil, gas and coal are being produced not only in well-developed areas but also in Siberia and Kazakhstan, on Sakhalin Island and other regions where these minerals have been recently discovered.

  1. The light industry is developing at a fast rate as well. Soviet fabrics, TV sets, watches and clocks and many other household goods have acquired good reputation abroad.

  2. The Soviet Union holds one of the leading places in the scale of construction work. Thousands of families move into new flats every year.

VII. Прочитайте 6-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
In what branch of industry does the Soviet Union hold one of the leading places?
1.... in the light industry.
2.... in the chemical industry.
3.... in construction.

ВАРИАНТ 5


I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Many 16-storey houses with alt modern conveniences are being built in this part of Moscow.

  1. The sputniks are used for the research of magnetic field sand cosmic rays.

  2. The properties of materials are affected by solar radiation.

  3. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before man.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов

it, that, one.



  1. It is necessary to obtain accurate data on the possibility of living and working in space.

  2. The peoples know that their joint efforts can secure peace in the whole world.

  3. We had to find new methods of investigation because the old one's were unsatisfactory.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1A programme for the construction of new types of space ships is to be carried out this year.

  1. Soviet people do not pay for medical treatment.

  2. We had to change the design of this machine.

  3. The speed of electrons is almost the same as that of light.

IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.

  1. We know radio and radar systems play a very important role at any airport.

  2. The information science gets about other galaxies comes through radiotelescopes.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.

  1. The Soviet science was the first to make great contribution to die development of space technology.

  2. In order to make interplanetary flights in the future it is necessary to know factors affecting the human organism.

  3. The main purpose of the computers is to solve complex problems quickly.

VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2,3 и 4-й абзацы.

Пояснения к тексту



  1. fundamental particle — элементарная частица

  2. emergence - появление

^ OUTLINE OF SOVIET SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS
1. The Soviet science has been concentrated lately on the most promising fundamental trends and fields, on increasing the practical effectiveness of research. The physics of fundamental particles1, the physics of the atomic nucleus, and solid state physics occupy an important place in modern science.
2. The Soviet scientists have developed large-scale commercial manufacture of artificial diamonds with properties which surpass those of natural diamonds. The finest crystallographic equipment has been developed making it possible to study the atomic structure of materials.

  1. The emergence2 of quantum electronics is one of the brightest events in the history of physics. Our scientists have suggested and developed the ideas of basically new sources of electromagnetic emission quantum generators. At present, they are used in industry for cutting and welding metals, for high precision treatment of various materials including diamonds and ceramics.

  2. The necessity to conduct extremely fast technical calculations, primarily in atomic technique, in aviation, rocketry and cosmonautics has led to the development of fast-acting electronic computers. Computers and other technical means of control are widely used in such fields as economics, planning and management of production. One should remember that the wide use of computers signifies a further advance in industry.

  3. In recent years we have seen new vast progress in space research. At present new projects for studying the Moon and the other planets of the solar system are being developed in the Soviet Union. "Soviet spaceships," said Sergei Korolev, General Designer of the first spacerocket, systems, a founder of practical cosmonautics, "will again and again leave the shore of the Universe to reach unexplored worlds. Their every flight and return will be a memorable occasion for the Soviet people and the whole progressive mankind, a triumph of reason and progress."

VII. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What did Sergei Korolev say about the aims of the space programme?
1.... studying weightlessness.
2.... studying solar radiation.
3.... conquering outer space.

^ КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ 4


Чтобы правильно выполнить задание 4, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:

  1. Сложные формы инфинитива (Passive Infinitive, Perfect Infinitive). Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объектный инфинитивный оборот, субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

  2. Причастия (Participle I, II). Независимый (самостоятельный) причастный оборот.

  3. Условные предложения.

Используйте образцы выполнения упражнений.
^ ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 1 (К УПР. I)
1. Millions of Soviet people are recorded to have taken part in elections. - Зарегистрировано, что миллионы советских людей приняли участие в выборах.
2. We want the new car to be produced by February. - Мы хотим, чтобы новый автомобиль был выпущен к февралю.
3. The device to be bought must be checked beforehand. - Прибор, который нужно купить, следует предварительно проверить.
^ ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 2 (К УПР. II)

  1. Countries wishing to cooperate with us will always find the necessary understanding. - Страны, желающие сотрудничать с нами, всегда найдут должное понимание.

  2. Having visited Leningrad the participants of the conference went to Tashkent. - Посетив Ленинград, участники конференции поехали в Ташкент.

  3. New technological processes having been developed, new types of equipment have been installed in the shop. - Когда были разработаны новые технологические процессы, в цехе было установлено новое оборудование.

^ ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 3 (К УПР. III)

  1. If the installation is put into operation in time, the economic effect will be greater. - Если установка будет пущена вовремя, экономический эффект возрастет.

  2. If the system had been perfected, we should have applied it for new calculations. - Если бы система была усовершенствована, мы бы применили ее для новых расчетов.

3. It would be impossible Было бы невозможно
to build spaceships without построить космические
using new materials and al- корабли без применения
loys. новых материалов и сплавов.

ВАРИАНТ 1


I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

  1. We know Czechoslovakia to be the second socialist country after the USSR to begin using atomic energy for industrial purposes.

  2. For a long time, special paper impregnated with paraffin was considered to be the main non-conductor used for manufacturing small capacitors (конденсатор).

(вырваны страницы в методичке с 67-70)
day make it possible to calculate the surface temperature of the Sun.

  1. Having built a new automobile plant, we increased the output of cars and buses.

  2. Knowledge being the most valuable wealth of our times, the information theory became of great importance for the national economy.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).

  1. If the gathered data had been presented in time, the results of the experiments would have been different.

  2. If you had answered six questions in the competition, you would have won the first prize.

  3. It would be impossible to carry on a careful study of the process without the new device.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3 и 4-йабзацы.

Пояснения к тексту



  1. structure shaped like - структура, имеющая форму

  2. seabed - морское дно

  3. per side — по сторонам

  1. to bear a resemblance to —походить (быть похожим) на

^ PYRAMIDS ON MARS?
1. An examination of some of the photos of Mars sent back to Earth by the space researchers Mariner-9 and Viking-1 provokes a question: was Mars once an inhabited planet? A group of Soviet scientists from a number of organizations examined the photo sand gave their conclusions.
2. There were discovered formations which have been interpreted as "a field of quadrangular pyramids". Mariner-9 discovered formations which are geometrically correct structures. Vtking-1photographed something resembling the ruins of Egyptian pyramids. Nine kilometres east of the "city of pyramids" the photograph shows a stone structure shaped like1 a human head, and a strange dark circle.
3. The analyses and physical modelling of the Martian formations were performed. The Martian surface was compared with that of the Moon, and the shapes of the formations were compared with those of Egyptian and Mexican pyramids.
The small Martian "pyramids" were found to resemble the recently discovered giant pyramids, lying on the seabed2 of the Bermuda Island and the pyramids, 250 m high, found in the Brazilian jungle.
4. But they are nothing in comparison to the large Martian "pyramids" measuring up to 1.5 kilometres per side3 at the base and up to one kilometre in height.
The image of the "Martian sphinx", 1.5 km long and 0.5 km wide, lies strictly along the meridian of the planet.
5. In the opinion of experts, the photographed formations are indeed pyramid-shaped, and the "oval shaped formation" bears aformal resemblance to4 a head. But all these strange figures are of natural origin.
V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:
What is the origin of the strange figures seen on the photos of Mars?

ВАРИАНТ 4


I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).

  1. The crew is reported to have carried out a great deal of scientific experiments.

  2. We know .the wave theory of light to be first proposed by the English physicist Robert Hooke in 1665.

  3. Nearly all refrigerators to be used at home are based upon the principle that the rapid evaporation of a liquid or the expansion of a gas produce cooling.

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).
(вырваны страницы в методичке с 73 по 74)
3. Powerful nuclear ice-breakers being built in our country, we began a new chapter in the history of Arctic exploration.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец выполнения 3).
1. If you had translated the article, you could have used valuable data in your work.

  1. If the quality of the equipment were higher, the results of the experiment would be more accurate.

  2. It would be impossible to explain chemical phenomena without using the laws of physics.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3 и 4-йабзацы.

Пояснения к тексту


1. to go on - продолжать
2. to get down - приступать

  1. in distress - в беде

  2. a great deal - огромное число

^ RESCUE FROM SPACE

  1. The tests of the international space search-and-rescue system COSPAS-SARSAT have been going on1 for five years. Its members are the USSR, the USA, France and Canada. Specialists believed that all these years would be spent on technically improving the system.

But somewhat unexpectedly for its makers the COSPAS-SARSAT system got down2 immediately to the fulfilment of its direct duties — rescuing people in distress.3 The first stellar rescuer is known to be the Soviet satellite Kosmos-1383, equipped with a radio-electronic complex for detecting the signals of ships and aircraft.

  1. Today three satellites — two Soviet and one American — are already in operation. The system having demonstrated excellent performance in actual distress situations, we'll continue to cooperate more widely in its application.

  2. Soon there will be ten stations for receiving distress information: three in the USSR, three in the USA, and one each in Canada, France, Britain and Norway. By 1983 the COSPAS-SARSAT system had already saved 120 people.

5. Considerable attention in the Soviet space programme is paid to researches aimed at solving problems for national science and economy. A great deal4 of scientific-technical and medical-biological experiments have been carried out. Numerous data concerning the earth's national resources, the atmosphere and seasonal changes are gathered. Biological experiments with the aim of developing the technology of growing plants in space conditions are continued. These experiments and data are of practical great importance.
V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:
What is the aim of biological experiments carried out in space? 2014-07-19 18:44
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