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Usui, Atsuko - Christianity in the Land of Santhals: a study of Resistance and Acceptance in Historical Perspective(03U)


Usui, Atsuko



Kanda University of International Studies, Japan

Issues over Gender Quality in Japanese Religion(08K)



Japan had lagged behind other countries on the issue of gender equality. But in the 1990's, the Japanese government started to realize the importance of this issue and to develop policies to promote gender quality. The aim of this paper is to survey how women and men have acted the movement for the promotion of gender equality and faced the difficulty in Japanese religion. I introduce two cases of activities: the special committee on sexism in the United Church of Christ in Japan, and Josei-Shitu (the section for women) in Sinshu Otani-ha. These two are different in doctrine, but they have in common the vision for reconsidering the traditional gender structure and promoting women's participation in the policy of the decision-making process. However, they have made poor progress. This illustrates how difficult it is to conduct a debate on gender issues in Japanese religion.

Organized panel, Japanese

Usui, Atsuko



kanda university of international studies, Japan

Religion, Society, and Law in post World War II Japan(08K)



*chairperson

Organized panel

Usuki, Akira



National Museum of Ethnology, Japan

Scriptural Interpretation and Politics(14B)



*respondent

Organized panel

Utriainen, Terhi Pepita



University of Helsinki, Finland

Dress: Shield or Weapon? Metaphorical Perspective to Embodied Religious Identity(12R)



Religious language is often metaphorical, and metaphors are powerful tools in constructing identities. My paper provides a tentative approach to the question of religious identity by looking at religious language about dress and nakedness. I argue that narratives, images and metaphors dealing with the topics of dress and nakedness construct religious identities and support ontological security on a subtle embodied level. For example, various Biblical narratives construct images of shamefully naked human beings who are dressed up by the powerful Judeo-Christian god. By providing examples from various religious texts my paper suggest that dress (understood broadly as any attachment to the body) can be regarded as one key metaphor of the shifting and flexible, and therefore socially and politically manipulable, border-zone of embodied (religious) identity. It would be, therefore, interesting to analyze in detail the various meanings given to dress. Is dress in some specific religious text or context represented primarily, for example, as protection, as visible or invisible identity marker, or as a weapon?

Organized panel, English

Utsunomiya, Teruo



Hokkaido University, Japan

The Role of Religion in the Acceptance of New Biomedical Technologies(06J)



What are the principles which construct and form human life? Of course, there is no single one. But religion has always been regarded as a crucial factor, and taken as the constructive standard for molding personality and also society, as well as the indispensable factor that enables people to accept their own deaths as well as those of others. Furthermore, it is seen as the standard by which people decide whether they can introduce new technologies into their lives or not. However, we do not have any parameters with which to measure, for example, to what extent religion brings about conflicts or to what extent it facilitates science and technology. In this talk I shall investigate the function of religion in the acceptance of death, and the role of religion for the new formation of bioethics concerning topics such as abortion and organ transplantation.

Symposium, English

Utsunomiya, Teruo



Hokkaido University, Japan

Life, Death and Technology(06J)



All the technologies that bioscience and medical science can theoretically realize are not introduced into real human life. Some are introduced positively, some suspiciously, and others harshly rejected. Furthermore, the attitudes against new technologies are different from society to society and from culture to culture. If there is a universal attitude, it can be changed by time. Can and should the evaluation of new technologies be made from an a priori viewpoint? Or it is relative to every society and culture? Then, what factors are the standards by which new technologies are accepted or rejected? This symposium will take up these kinds of questions from three different perspectives: that of religious studies, ethics, and medicine, esp. psychiatry. All the talks will be given in English but their Japanese translations in full paper will also be given to the audience. Questions and answers will be held in both languages through an interpreter.

Symposium, * Session Abstract, English

Uy Choco, Guadalupe S.



University of Philippines, Philippines

Contemporary Filipino Christianity: the Philippine Experience of 1986(14E)



This paper attempts to explain the uniqueness of our Revolution of February 1986, known around the world as People Power. In doing so, it hopes to give the reader an insight of the level or degree of "spirituality" and "religiosity" of our people from its primitive, pagan beginnings to the advent of Christianity and its (Christianity) subsequent entrenchment in Philippine life. The melding of pagan and Christian teachings, practices and beliefs reinforced the new religion as it evolved through the centuries into what will be termed as "folk Catholicism." It is this new strength of our Christianity that qualified it as the motivating force and the inspiration which supported the several uprisings and revolts our forefathers resorted to against the intolerable rule of the colonial masters. As it was in the past, so it was in 1986. Christianity provided the sinews of the Revolution against the dictatorial government of Ferdinand E. Marcos; and was won without arms nor violence. How different this Revolution was from any other revolution will be discussed.

Organized panel, English

Valverde, Maria Carmen



Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

Rituals in Mayan Rebellions During the XIX Century(02R)



The second half of the XIX century in Maya area, was a convoluted period. The Caste War at the Yucatan Peninsula that lasted more than fifty years (from 1847 to 1901) and the Chamula Rebellion in Chiapas Highlands (1867-1870), caused serious problems to the different central Mexican governments. These complex movements had a lot of interesting aspects, but one of the most important was their religious features. Between battles, clashes and military events, the Maya Indians created in both movements a particular cult related to the revolt, the specific characteristics of them are the subject of this paper.

Symposium, English

Valverde, Maria Carmen



Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico

Cult and Ritual in the Maya Area(02R)



Maya sacred thoughts were preserved after the Spanish Conquest, as identity and cultural resistance elements, which have persisted to the present times. Much of these ideas was kept inside the houses as part of the every day life or was expressed in community, familial or individual rites. In this paper, I will try to show how the Mayas had displayed their religiosity, by giving some examples of particular public ceremonies or private practices. I will analyze the different moments of Maya's history, how they apparently accepted catholic religion, but this was just for the Spanish eyes. Maya people actually adapted it to their own and ancient ideas, the new ones that came from Europe. The result of all this process was a different and a very particular religious way of living.

Symposium, * Session Abstract, English

van Bragt, Jan



Ex-Director of Nanzan University, Japan

Religious Conversion(01W)



*chairperson

Organized panel

Van den Doel, Marieke



Universiteit van Amsterdam, Netherlands

Inspiration and Imagination: Marsilio Ficino's Influence on 16th Century(13S)



In a cornucopia of translations and commentaries, the Florentine philosopher Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499) tried to reconcile the conflicting contradictions between Christian doctrine and Antique philosophy, especially the teachings of Plato. Ficino's concept of the human soul and the role man's faculty of imagination plays in it are clear examples of this. Ficino's ideas have influenced both art and art theory in the early modern period. His characterisation of the melancholy temperament in particular, I.e. as a disposition that enables genius, a more sensitive imagination and an aptitude for furor divinus, play an important part in this development. Ficino's influence on art theory becomes manifest, for instance, in Federico Zuccari's (1540-1609) notion that man has certain "imprints" of the divine in his imagination, which he is able to visualise or - even more specifically - materialise by means of drawing. Zuccari equates disegno with segno di Dio in noi: drawing is the sign of God within us. In the prevailing views of art literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the human faculty of imagination is the divine component of man, the divine spark of his creative power. At the same time it is the instrument to emulate nature in order to produce a new intelligible universe and in this way to imitate God.

Organized panel, English

van Doorn-Harder, Nelly



Valparaiso University, USA

Studying Religious Peacemaking in the Religions of Abraham(03D)



In the aftermath of 9/11 and the Iraq war, teaching Islam in the USA has become a nearly acrobatic and politically charged act. Most of our students want to hear niceties about Islam while avoiding the complexities of a lived religion. My school is of a religious character and forms part of a network of 72 similar institutions. Since our students constitute a fair representation of the religious outlook of the average, conservative Christian American, we tried to fill what in fact is an empty framework of notions about the Islamic other and the justification for the war in Iraq with a curriculum that addresses the complex issues within individual religions, while considering the processes of religious peacemaking and inter-religious dialogue. Based on theories developed in the field of conflict resolution and reconciliation, we work from an integrated approach that not only looks at violence and peacemaking within Islam but also in Christianity and Judaism. Understanding that violence is inherently present in all three religions, students consider the issues in terms of social change, relationships, subsystems, and potentials for transformation. In an effort to help them understand how transformation from violence-mindedness to a mindset of peace can take place, they study the personal dimensions of conflicts (emotions, perceptions and spirituality), and the structural, cultural and social dimensions of inter--religious conflicts. The final goal of these courses is to convey that we all can be agents of peace by being involved in the creation of new patterns, processes and structures.

Organized panel

Van Fleteren, Frederick Emil



LaSalle University, USA

War and Peace in Augustine of Hippo(06N)



The dialectic between war and peace, hate and love, goes back to the earliest Greek philosophers. Plato, perhaps begrudgingly, maintained soldiers in his ideal state. The purpose of education was to bring about the gentleman-soldier. But rest is also a category of Plato's thought. In the Latin world, Cicero justified some of the Roman wars. Virgil added his own views. Augustine is heir to this western tradition. But Augustine is also heir to the tradition of biblical thought. Augustine exegizes Scripture to temper some aspects of the ancient Greeks. Some Christian thinkers prior to Augustine considered war and peace in the context of the Bible, but Augustine is thought to be the founder of the just war theory in the West. The situation is complex. On the one hand, peace is the end desired by every man. Even war has peace as its final goal. On the other, war is sometimes necessary and at times justified. Augustine may be the first thinker in the West to consider precise conditions under which a war may be justified. In this sense, he may be considered "father" of the just war theory. However, the just war theory is not present in Augustine in the definitive form it will take in the high and late Middle Ages.

Organized panel, English

van Ginkel, Hans



(05A)



*chairperson

van Ginkel, Hans



(06A)



*chairperson

Van Kreijl, Roelie



University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Western Esotericism Versus Science: a Riot in Early 19th-century Medicine(12G)



Ever since the Scientific Revolution the natural sciences in the West have developed at great pace. At the same time, esoteric forms of science (often referred to as 'pseudo science') came into being. These forms of science generally put much effort in the drawing of hard and fast boundaries between themselves and regular science, and defenders of regular science have always joined them vigorously in this practice. An analysis of this drawing of boundaries, and especially the way in which it is done, is very revealing. It brings to light the dichotomies and epistemologies that are used by both parties to construct their identities as opposed to those of their rivals. The paper will illustrate this by investigating the polemic between the founder of homeopathy and his adherents and the representatives of academic medicine during the first decades of the 19th century.

Symposium, English

Vazquez, Lourdes Celina



University of Guadalajara, Mexico

Political and Anthropological Studies of Contemporary Christian Mission Activities(03U)



*chairperson

Organized panel

Vazquez, Lourdes Celina



University of Guadalajara, Mexico

Identity and Power: the Mexican Saints from the Christian War(03U)



The relationship between Catholic Church and Mexican State was marked by protracted disagreements that led to the civil war of 1926-1929, also known as the Christian war. In recent years, Pope Juan Pablo II canonized 25 martyrs of this war, showing them to the believers in Mexico and the world as role models. In this paper I analyze the impact that these new saints will have on the formation of national identity, and how the recovery of the historical memory by the Catholic Church is a very important mechanism of power at the present juncture of globalization and loss of the church's hegemony.

Organized panel, English

Veliath, Cyril



Sophia University, Japan

Muslim-Christian Dialogue at Akbar Court in the Mughal Empire(01E)



In 1526, approximately two decades before the arrival of Francis Xavier, the magnificent Mughal Empire was established in India. Akbar, the third emperor, was one of the most enlightened and open-minded monarchs the world has ever known, and his uniqueness lay in the fact that in 1578 he invited Jesuits from the city of Goa which lay about 176 kilometers to the south of Delhi, to explain Christianity both to himself and to the people in his court. The provincial superior of the Jesuits, Rui Vicente, on receiving the emperor's invitation dispatched three of his priests to the Mughal court, namely Rudolph Acquaviva, Francis Henriques, and Anthony Monserrate, on this first mission which lasted from 1580 to 1583. As the exchange of ideas, views, and religious arguments with the Islamic court theologians continued, the emperor displayed a great affability towards the three men, although he did not convert to Christianity. Yet, this was one of the major steps in inter-religious dialogue in India.

Organized panel, English
2014-07-19 18:44
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