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HUSCHKE, GEORG PHILIPP EDUARD - 361 religious encyclopedia


HUSCHKE, GEORG PHILIPP EDUARD:

Jurist and authority on church government; b. at Miinden June 26, 1801; d. at Breslau Feb. 7, 1886. In 1817 he went to G6ttingen and studied law. He was attracted by Savigny in Berlin, but returned to Gdttingen and established himself as privat docent, lecturing on the orations of Cicero, on Gains and the history of law; then he was appointed professor in Rostock, He accepted a call to Breslau as pro­fessor of Roman law in 1827. Soon after his arrival he became interested in the dissensions caused by

I. The Life and Work of Hues.

Early Life and Studies (§ 1).

Influence of Wyclif in Bohemia (¢ 2).

The Papal Schism (§ 3).

Indulgences (§ 4).

Further Dissensions (15).

The Council of Constance (¢ 8).

Trial of Huss (§ 7).

I. The Life and Work of Huss: John Huss, the famous Reformer of Bohemia, was born at Hussinetz (Husineez; 75 m. s.s.w. of Prague)

:. Early July 6, 1369, as commonly given; but

Life and the day is an inference from the fact

Studies. that his followers honored his memory

on July 6, the day of his death, and

the year is probably too late; he was burned at the

stake in Constance, June 6, 1415. John Huss is his

common English designation, but the name is more

correctly written, according to Slavic spelling, Hus.

It is an abbreviation from his birthplace made by

himself about 1399; in earlier life he was always

known as Johann or Jan Hussinetz, or, in Latin,

Johannes de Hussinetz. His parents were Czechs, in

narrow circumstances. Like Luther, he had to earn

his living by singing and performing humble services

in the Church. He felt inclined toward the clerical

profession, not so much by an inner impulse as by

the attraction of the tranquil life of the clergy. He

studied at Prague, where he must have been as early

as the middle of the eighties. He was greatly in­

fluenced by Stanislaus of Znaim, who later was long

his intimate friend, but finally his bitter enemy.

As a student Huss slid not distinguish himself.

The learned quotations of which he boasted in his

writings were mostly taken from Wyclif's works.

A hot temper and arrogance were traits of his char­

acter, and he was not free from sophistry. In 1393

he became bachelor of arts, in 1394 bachelor of

theology, and in 1396 master of arts. In 1400 he

was ordained priest, in 1401 he became dean of the

philosophical faculty, and in the following year

Hurlbut

Huss

the Evangelical Union which were forced upon the

orthodox Lutherans by the state rulers, and took

a prominent part in them. Huachke tried to solve

the problem practically as soon as he came to

Breslau. Out of the dispute originated the inde­

pendent Lutheran Church, and Huschke, as the

defender of its rights, was appointed head of the

supreme church college. He was intensely hostile

to the papacy, in which he saw the realization of a

demoniac power. He was an eager student of the

apocalypse. The fruit of his studies was a work

entitled Das Buck mit sieben Siegeln (Dresden, 1860).

His exegesis, however, is not always sound. His

ideas on church government are laid down in Die

streitigen Lehren von der Rirche, dem Kirchenamt,

dem Kirchertregiment and der Kirchenregierung (Leip­

aic, 1863). He published many important writings

on law. (R. ROCHOLL.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

L. Feldner, Die Verhandtungen der Kom­mission xw Er6rterunpderPrinxipianderKirchenverfaasunp, Halls, 1880; J. F. von Schulte, Oeaehichte der Quellen and Literatur du eanoniaehen Rechts, iii. 241 eqq., Stuttgart. 1880; J. H. Iteinkene, Melchior von Diepenbrock, p. 333. Leipeic, 1881; J. Nagel, Wider Wange»wnn, Cottbus, 1882.

HUSS, JOHN, HUSSITES.

Condemnation and Execution (18).

Hues' Character, Writings, sad Teachings (§ 9).

Source of his Influence (§ 10). IL The Hueaitea.

Effect in Bohemia of the Death of Huss (¢ 1).

Two Parties in Bohemia (§ 2).

The Four Articles of Prague (§ 3).

Caliatinesor Utraquiste, and Tabor­ites (§ 4).

The Hussite Ware (¢ b).

The Council of Basel and Com­pactata of Prague (§ 0).

Final Disappearance of the Huse­ites (§ 7).

rector. In 1402 he was appointed also preacher of

the Bethlehem Church in Prague, where he preached in the Czech language.

After the marriage of King Wenceslaus' sisteir, Anne, with Richard II. of England in 1382, the philosophical writings of Wyclif be­s. Influence came known in Bohemia. As a student of Wyclif in Huss had been greatly attracted by

Bohemia. them, particularly by his philosophical

realism. His inclination toward eccle­

siastical reforms was awakened only by the ac­

quaintance with Wyclif's theological writings. The

so called Hussiam in the first decades of the fifteenth

century was nothing but Wyclifiam transplanted

into Bohemian soil. As such it maintained itself

until the death of Hues, then it turned into Utra­

quiem, and with logical sequence there followed

Taboritiem (see below). The theological writings of

Wyclif spread widely in Bohemia. They had been

brought over, as is said, in 1401 or 1402 by Jerome

of Prague, and Huss was greatly moved by them.

The university arose against the spread of the new

doctrines, and in 1403 prohibited a disputation on

forty five theses taken in part from Wyclif. Under

Archbishop Sbinko of Haeenburg (from 1403), Huss

enjoyed in the beginning a great reputation. In

1405 he was active as synodical preacher, but on

account of his severe attacks upon the clergy the

bishop was compelled to depose him.

The development of conditions at the University of Prague depended to a great extent on the question of the papal schism (see 3cHrsrs). Ding Wenceslaus, who was on the point of assuming the reins of




Hums THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 416

government, but whose plans were in no way furthered by Gregory XII., renounced the latter

and ordered his prelates to observe a

3. The strict neutrality toward both popes,

Papal and he expected the same of the uni 

Schism. versity. But the archbishop remained

faithful to Gregory, and at the univer­sity it was only the Bohemian nation, with Huss as its spokesman, which avowed neutrality. Incensed by this attitude, Wenceslaus, at the instigation of Huss and other Czech leaders, issued a decree accord­ing to which there should be conceded to the Bohe­mian nation three votes in all affairs of the university, while the foreign nations, principally the German, should have only one vote. As a consequence many German doctors, masters, and students left the university in 1409, and the University of Leipsic was founded. Thus Prague lost its international importance and became a Czech school; but the emigrants spread the fame of the Bohemian heresies into the most distant countries.

The archbishop was then isolated and Huss at the height of his fame. He became the first rector of the Czech university, and enjoyed the favor of the court. In the mean time, the doctrinal views of Wyclif had spread over the whole country. As long as Sbinko remained obedient to Gregory XII., all opposition to the new spirit was in vain; but as soon as he submitted to Alexander V., conditions changed. The archbishop brought his complaints before the papal see, accusing the Wyclifites as the instigators of all ecclesiastical disturbances in Bohemia. Thereupon the pope issued his bull of Dec. 20, 1409, which empowered the archbishop to proceed against Wyclifism all books of Wyclif were to be given up, his doctrines revoked, and free preaching discontinued. After the publication of the bull in 1410, Huss appealed to the pope, but in vain. All books and valuable manuscripts of Wyclif were burned, and Huss and his adherents put under the ban. This procedure caused an indescribable commotion among the people down to the lowest classes; in some places turbulent scenes occurred. The government took the part of Huss, and the power of his adherents increased from day to day. He continued to preach in the Bethlehem chapel, and became bolder and bolder in his accusations of the Church. The churches of the city were put under the ban, and the interdict was pronounced against Prague, but without result.

Sbinko died in 1411, and with his death the

relig­

ious movement in Bohemia entered a new phase 

the disputes concerning indulgences

4. Indul  arose. In 1411 John XXIII. issued his

genres. Cruciata against King Ladislaus of

Naples, the protector of Gregory XII. In Prague also the cross was preached, and preachers of indulgences urged people to crowd the churches and give their offerings. There developed a traffic in indulgences. Huss, following the example of Wyclif, lifted up his voice against it and wrote his famous Cruciata. But he could not carry with him the men of the university. In 1412 a disputation took place, on which occasion Huss delivered his QuwsOo magistri Johannis Hus . . . de indulgentiis. It was taken literally from the last chapter of

Wyclif's book, De ecclesia, and his treatise, De obsolutione a pena et culpa. No pope or bishop, according to Wyclif and Huss, has a right to take up the sword in the name of the Church; he should pray for his enemies and bless those that curse him. Man obtains forgiveness of sins by real repentance, not for money. The doctors of the theological faculty replied, but without success. A few days afterward the people, led by Wok of Waldstein, burnt the papal bulls. Huss, they said, should be obeyed rather than the fraudulent mob of adulterers and simonists. Under the pressure of the opposing party, the long was forced to punish every public insult of the pope and all opposition against his bulls. Three men from the lower classes who openly contradicted the preachers during their sermons and called indulgences a fraud were beheaded. They were the first martyrs of the Hussite Church. The theological faculty requested Huss to present his speeches and doctrines to the dean for an exam­ination, but he refused. In the mean time the faculty had condemned the forty five articles anew and added several other heretical theses which had originated with Huss. The king forbade the teach­ing of these articles, but neither Huss nor the university approved of this summary condemna­tion, requesting that the unscripturalness of the articles should be first proved.

The tumults at Prague had stirred up a sensation, unpleasant for the Roman party; papal legates and

Archbishop Albik tried to persuade

g. Further Huss to give up his opposition against Dissensions. the bulls, and the king made an un 

successful attempt to reconcile the two parties. In the mean time the clergy of Prague, through Michael de Causis, had brought their com­plaints before the pope, and he ordered the cardinal of St. Angelo to proceed against Huss without mercy. The cardinal put him under the great church ban. He was to be seized and delivered to the archbishop, and his chapel was to be destroyed. Stricter measures against Huss and his adherents, the counter measures of the Hussites, and the appeal of Huss from the pope to Jesus Christ as the supreme judge only intensified the excitement among the people and forced Huss to depart from Prague, in compliance with the wish of the king; but his absence had not the expected effect. The excite­ment continued. The king, being grieved by the disrepute of his country on account of the heresy, made great efforts to harmonize the opposing parties. In 1412 he convoked the heads of his king­dom for a consultation, and at their suggestion ordered a synod to be held at Bbhmisch Brbd on Feb. 2, 1412. It did not take place there, but in the palace of the archbishops at Prague, Huss being thus excluded from participation. Propositions were made for the restitution of the peace of the Church, Huss requiring especially that Bohemia should have the same freedom in regard to eccIes­iastical affairs as other countries and that approba­tion and condemnation should therefore be an­nounced only with the permission of the state power. This is wholly the doctrine of Wyclif (Sermones, iii. 519, etc.). There followed treatises from both parties, but no harmony was obtained. " Even if




417 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA

Hess



I should stand before the stake which has been pre­pared for me," Hues wrote in those days, " I would never accept the recommendation of the theological faculty." The synod did not produce any results, but the king did not yet give up his hope he ordered a commission to continue the work of recon­ciliation. The doctors of the university required from Huss and his adherents an approval of their conception of the Church, according to which the pope is the head, the cardinals the body of the Church, and that all regulations of this Church must be obeyed. Huss protested vigorously against this conception since it made pope and cardinals alone the Church. Nevertheless the Hussite party seems to have approached the standpoint of their opponents as closely as possible. To the article that the Roman Church must be obeyed, they added " so far as every pious Christian is bound." Stanis­laws of Znaim and Stephan of Palecz protested against this addition and left the convention. The king exiled them, with two other spokesmen. Of the writings occasioned by these controversies, that of Huss on the Church

(De ecckaia)

has been most frequently quoted and admired or criticized, and yet it is in the first ten chapters but a meagre epitome of Wyclif's work of the same title, and in the following chapters an abstract of a work by the same author

(De potentate pape)

on the power of the pope Wyclif had written his book to oppose the common view that the Church consisted only of the clergy, and Huss now found himself in a similar condition. He wrote his work at the castle of one of his protectors in Kozf hradek, near Austie, and sent it to Prague, where it was publicly read in the Bethlehem chapel. It was answered by Stanislaus of Znaim and Palecz with treatises of the same title. After the most vehement opponents of Huss had left Prague, his adherents occupied the whole ground. Huss wrote his treatises and preached in the neighborhood of Kozi hradek. Bohemian Wy­clifism was carried into Poland, Hungary, Croatia, and Austria.; but at the same time the papal court was not inactive. In Jan., 1413, there assembled at Rome a general council which condemned the wri­tings of Wyclif and ordered them to be burned.

To put an end to the papal schism and to take up the long desired reform of the Church, a general council was convened for Nov. 1, 1414,

6. The at Constance. The Emperor Sigismund, Council of brother of Wenceslaus, and heir to the

Constance. Bohemian crown, was anxious to clear the country from the blemish of heresy. Huss likewise was willing to make an end of all dissensions, and gladly followed the request of Sigismund to go to Constance. From the sermons which he took along, it is evident that he purposed to convert the assembled fathers to his own (i.e., Wyclif's) principal doctrines. Sigismund promised him safe conduct. Provided with sufficient testi­monies concerning his orthodoxy, and after having made his will as if he had divined his death, he started on his journey (Oct. 11, 1414). On Nov. 3 he arrived at Constance, and on the following day the bulletins on the church doors announced that Michael of Deutschbrod would be the opponent of Huss, the heretic. In the beginning Hues was at V. 27

liberty, making his abode at the house of a widow, but after a few weeks his opponents succeeded in imprisoning him, on the strength of a rumor that he intended to flee. He was first brought into the residence of a canon, and thence, on Dec. 8, into the dungeon of the Dominican monastery. Sigis­mund was greatly angered at the abuse of his letter of safe conduct and threatened the prelates with dismissal, but when it was hinted that in such a case the council would be dissolved, there was nothing left for him but to accommodate himself to the circumstances. Thus the fate of Huss was sealed. On Dec. 4 the pope had entrusted a committee of three bishops with a preliminary investigation against him. The witnesses for the prosecution were heard, but Huss was refused an advocate for his defense. His situation became worse after the catas­trophe of John XXIII., who had left Constance to evade the necessity of abdicating (see John XXIII.). So far Huss had been the captive of the pope and in constant intercourse with his friends, but now he was delivered to the archbishop of Constance and brought to his castle, Gottlieben on the Rhine. Here he remained seventy three days, separated from his friends,
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