.RU
Карта сайта

[edit] Infrastructure - Ned Kelly Last updated 5 days ago

[edit] Infrastructure

[edit] Health




Aerial view of Royal Melbourne Hospital in Parkville

The Government of Victoria's Department of Health oversees approximately 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations.[180]

There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent\'s Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre.

Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron.[181] Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities.

Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties equal 1st with Canberra for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).[182]

[edit] Transport


Main article: Transport in Melbourne



The Bolte Bridge is part of the CityLink tollway system.

Melbourne has a very high dependency on the automobile for transport,[183] particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought,[184] with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world.[183] The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion,[185] and today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including bus and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney.[186]



Southern Cross Station, Melbourne's main inter-urban train and bus interchange



A C2 class Melbourne tram in Transdev TSL livery on La Trobe Street

Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. In the 1940s, 25% of travellers used public transport but by 2003 it had declined to just 7.6%.[187] The public transport system was privatised in 1999, symbolising the peak of the decline.[188] Despite privatisation and successive governments persisting with auto-centric urban development into the 21st century,[189] there have since been large increases in public transport patronage, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips.[190] A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006.[191] Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.[191] There have also been recent developments with the introduction with reusable card system, Myki.
[edit] Rail
The Melbourne rail network has its origins in privately built lines from the 1850s gold rush era, and today the suburban network consists of 200 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the Central Business District (Hoddle Grid). Flinders Street Station is Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place.[192] The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide and beyond which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross Station in Spencer Street. In the 2008–2009 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 213.9 million passenger trips, the highest in its history.[193] Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards are also used for freight.
[edit] Melbourne Metro[194]
The Melbourne Metro Project, is a planned development consisting of a new railway line running north-south under the city centre. This line will be installed in two stages:

Stage 1 from Arden Metro (Dynon Rd) to Parkville Metro, to CBD North Metro (Carlton) to CBD South, to Domain (St Kilda)

Stage 2 from Domain to Caulfield.
[edit] Trams
Main article: Trams in Melbourne

Melbourne has the largest tram network in the world[31][195] which had its origins in the city's 1880s land boom. In the 2010-2011 year 182.7 million passenger trips were made by tram.[196] Melbourne's is Australia's only tram network to comprise more than a single line and consists of 250 km (155.3 mi) of track, 487 trams, 28 routes, and 1,773 tram stops.[197] Sections of the tram network are on roads,[197] while others are separated or are light rail routes.[198] Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening.[199]
[edit] Buses
Main article: Buses in Melbourne

Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs fill the gaps in the network between rail and light rail services.[199][200] 86.7 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne’s buses in 2007.[201]
[edit] Port
Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12 month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.[151] Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania docking there.[202] Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay.
[edit] Air
Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne Airport, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airlines Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority; and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport currently available to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patients.[203] Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east as well as handling a limited number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights.[204]
[edit] Cycling
Main article: Cycling in Melbourne

Melbourne has a bicycle sharing system. It was established in 2010[205] and utilises a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities.

[edit] Utilities




Sugarloaf Reservoir (in 2007) at Christmas Hills in the metropolitan area is one of Melbourne's closest water supplies.

Main article: Energy in Victoria

Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region and will be responsible for the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity,[206] while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies.

Gas is provided state wide by SP Ausnet. Electricity is provided by 5 distribution companies:

Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services.

2014-07-19 18:44
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • Контрольная работа
  • © sanaalar.ru
    Образовательные документы для студентов.