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3.3. About pronunciation and grammar - Yoneoka Seminar


3.3. About pronunciation and grammar



The languages have these differences of class too. The way of speaking English consists of choice of words, pronunciation and an accent have big differences by region. The lower class people speak with a stronger accent. Nakamura (1989) said there are affinities between class and vocabulary.
“....it is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without some other Englishman despises him.” This phrase is often quoted to show the deep relation between class and language. This phrase quoted from Pygmalion (1916); was written by 5G. B. Shaw. Pygmalion is an original of My Fair Lady. (Nakamura 1989, p.9; translated from Japanese)

John Honey (1989, quoted in Kurata 1994, p.18-19), linguist, said as follows. “In the political world, the financial world, the business world and academic community, it hasn’t changed since Pygmalion that the top level position of various fields is decided by accent”. And people who start on the bottom rung of the ladder to succeed independently have increased, but it is difficult for them to get a top position in the political party, a bank or a big company. It’s not unusual to encounter a character evaluation such as “If he didn’t have the Northern accent, he could be a president.””(translated from Japanese)

Oishi (1995, p.14-31) said, “There are differences of class on the pronunciation.” Firstly, the sound of [r] (right after vowels). Secondly, the sound of the initial [h].In the British Received Pronunciation, the [r] isn’t pronounced right after vowels. In Reading, which typifies southern England, upper class people don’t pronounce [r]. However, lower class people pronounce [r]. It is typical of lower-class language to pronounce words without initial [h] in British English. In classes, it is a language of the lower class. Therefore, an omitted [h] is a distinction between the middle class and working class.

This examination is the proportion of schoolchildren who leave out [h] in London.

Middle class children・・・・14%

Working class children・・・・81%

Then, the following is an examination of the dialect in Eastern England, ( Norfolk, Norridge city.)

    Middle (middle) class・・・・・6%

Middle (lower) class・・・・・・14%

Working (upper) class・・・・・40%

Working (middle) class・・・・・59%

Working (lower) class・・・・・・61%

Trudgill (1974, p.131;quoted in Oishi 1995, p.30)

The above shows that. The differences of class influenced people’s language.

4. The different varieties of British English in London



There are different types of English in London. For example, RP is spoken by upper class people as a Standard Pronunciation, Cockney is popular with many people and it is a typical of the working class. Estuary is a new type of language. These languages each have characteristics and common parts. Also, there is a deep relation between Cockney and Estuary.

4.1 Received Pronunciation (RP)



Standard pronunciation in standard English is called RP. RP stands for Received Pronunciation. It is spoken by educated people who live in London and Southern England. Originally, RP was developed in public school and it was used in academic education. It is sometimes called BBC English or Oxford English.

In the 1920s’, BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) adapted this pronunciation. As a result, it became popular. Many announcers graduated from Oxford or Cambridge University. Therefore, it was natural for them to speak RP. In the 1970s’ -1980s’, the BBC changed the pronunciation to show the announcer’s accent. Now, BBC announcers tend to use their regional accent, so RP is hardly used. RP was also called Oxford English. Oxford University’s teachers and students speak RP by choice. In other words, RP was spoken education in the upper class at first. After that, it prevailed in radio and TV. It became a model for people who are learning English as a foreign language. Only 3~5 % people speak RP in Britain.

4.2 Cockney



The origin is cok’ “cock” + ei “egg” =“Cocken-ay” = rooster’s egg, failure egg. It means worthless. (It has a derogatory meaning) Many people used this daily. It is common in London and it is known as the language of workers in the East End. It is famous as the language used by Eliza in the movie “My Fair Lady”. Cockney has a distinctive pronunciation, as follows:

1,  They don’t pronounce initial “h”

2,  They pronounce diphthong [ei] as [ai].

These two distinctions are very famous. For example, the latter can be seen in a famous song from “My Fair Lady”.

*The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain. (RP)

    [rein]      [spein][steiz][meinli]    [plein]

*The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain. (Cockney)

    [rain]  [spain][staiz][mainli]    [plain]

3,  They pronounce “t” as a glottal stop between and at the end of a word.

For example, water → wa’er, a little bit → a li’le bi’

4, They pronounce [th] as [f] and [v].

For example, Father → farver, Everything → everyfink

Cockney not only has these distinctions of pronunciation; it also has a very interesting slang. It is called “Cockney rhyming slang”. Rhyming slang is a pun. It rhymes and transposes other words. The list below is representative of rhyming slang.

apple & pears (リンゴと梨) → stairs(階段)

plates of meat (肉料理) → feet(脚)

mince pie (ミンス・パイ)→ eyes(目)

pig’s ear(豚の耳) → beer(ビール)

elephant’s trunk (象の鼻) → drunk(酔う)

Tom thumb (親指トム) → rum(ラム酒)

sugar & honey(砂糖と蜂蜜) → money(マネー)

Cain & Abel(カインとアベル) → table(テーブル)

loaf of bread(ひときれのパン) → head(頭)

trouble & strife(トラブルとケンカ) → wife(ワイフ)

rabbit & pork(ウサギと豚肉) → talk(話)

Walter Scott(ウォルター・スコット) → pot(ポット)

Pope’s Rome(法王のローマ) → home(家)

love & kisses(愛と接吻) → misses(ミセス)

cherry-ripe(熟したサクランボ) → pipe(パイプ)

linen draper(生地<リネン>屋) → newspaper(新聞)

sky rocket(花火) → pocket(ポケット)

Oliver Twist(オリバー・ツイスト) → fist(こぶし)

fisherman’s daughter(漁師の娘) → water(水)

Extracted from Kurata (1994, p.103-105)

There is also inversion slang in cockney. It is called “Back slang”. This is no longer used, but it was used to count money before Cockney. Below are some examples.

エノー  eno (one)

オウト  owt (two)

エルス  erth (three)

ラウフ  rouf (four)

エウィフ ewif (five)

エクジス exis (six)

Extracted from Kurata (1994, p.105)

“Rhyming slang” and “Back slang” are used among Cockney people only. There are two opinions or why this slang appeared. First opinion is a common knowledge: In the 18th and 19th century, many Irish people came Britain. So, Cockney people made slang which is common among cockney only. They looked down on Irish people. Because Londoners couldn’t understand Gaelic, so they competed with Gaelic. Another opinion is that. In the old days, the tradesmen who sold fruits and vegetables in London used it when they did illegal business. Because of this illegality, they use words which could only be understood between themselves, like a secret code.

4.3 Estuary



This type of English originated in the estuary of the Thames River. It was spoken around the periphery of Thames and new types of English. Now, many people use “Estuary English” in London and its surrounding area. This is a medium dialect between upper-class’ RP and non-upper class’ Cockney.

This distinction of pronunciation is similar to Cockney.

  1. They pronounce “t” as a glottal stop between and at the end of a word.

  2. They pronounce ending “l” as “w”.

For example, tell →tew, kill →kiw

Estuary is going popularity. Old people still speak with a strong accent. They speak dialects much more compared with young people. Young people speak dialect and standard language according to the situation. They can listen to standard language by using radio, TV, traveling and so on. They are easily able to meet people with other dialects. Thus, Estuary is product of social change.

5. Conclusion



Differences such as the above are only the tip of the iceberg. There are plenty more. In the 15th century, class was important. There are big differences between the upper class and others. There are some people who want to separate people into upper class and other classes. This thought may affect the language. Recently, these differences of class have dwindled. The difference of class is become obscure by a change in the education (such as a scholarship) and a change in the life cycle. Lower class people are able to climb the walls of accent depending on their will. Ms. Thatcher6 is the most famous example of this. She was born at the country general shop. However, she worked to correct her accent since she was young, and later went on Oxford University with a scholarship. She now speaks perfect RP.

The dawn of Estuary is a symbol of compromise between upper class and lower class. In the 1980s, when Ms. Thatcher was a prime minister, there were some big changes. Estuary appeared. Also, BBC announcers’ accents changed at that time. Young noble people correct their upper class speech and they use pronunciation of such as Cockney.

Language changes with the movement of society. If the differences between the classes swelled, it will affect the language. But, in the present day, with people driving for “a classless society”, many differences will dwindle.

6. Bibliography



Akizawa, Koji (1992) Zoku Amerikano eigo Tokyo: Maruzen.

Cafeglobe (2004) ”cafeglobe” available at http://www.cafeglobe.com/ as of Nov.17,2004.

“Cockney wo obennkyou” available at http://www5c.biglobe.ne.jp/~s_box/movie/jason/cockney.htm as of Nov.17, 2004

COLLINS Cobuild English language Dictionally (1987) Tokyo: SHUBUN INTERNAIONAL

“Eikoku fanno page” available at http://www13.ocn.ne.jp/~uk_fan/ as of Nov.17, 2004.

“English language” available at http://www.actv.ne.jp/~sakamon/index.htm as of Nov.17, 2004.

English zakkaya (2004) “English zakkaya” available at http://www.inr.co.jp/zakkaya/ as of Nov.22,2004.

Fujikawa, Masahiko (1993) Jishoninai eigohyougen Tokyo: Maruzen.

Gotoh, Miho (2003) “Non-regional differences of English in England and America”

Hosoi, Hiroki Kaikyuushakai Igirisuno genzai available at

http://www.waseda.jp/sem-muranolt01/KE/KE0103.htm as of Nov.22, 2004

“Igirisueigo no Heya” available at

http://www3.famille.ne.jp/~chikashi/emille/english.html

Inaki, Akiko, Hotta, Tomoko and Okita, Tomoko (2002) Shin Eigo Eigo Eigogaku. Tokyo: Shohakusha.

“Insomnia cafe” available at http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/alex99/ as of Dec.14, 2004.

Kishida, Takayuki, Hayasaka, Shin, Okumura, Naoshi (2002) Rekishikra yomitoku eigono nazo Tokyo: Kyoikushuppan.

Kurata, Yasuo (1994) Kurata Tokyo: Koudansha.

Matsumoto, Yasuhiro, Matsumoto, Airin (1994) Ikiteiru eigo~ Nativeni naruhouhou ~ Tokyo: Maruzen.

Nabekura, Takeyoshi (1995) Communication no eigo~chiteki kouryuuno tameni~ Tokyo: Maruzen.

Nakamura, Kei (1989) Eigoha donna gengoka~Eigono shakaiteki tokusei~ Tokyo: Sanseido.

Obunsha. Co., Ltd (2004) available at http://www.obunsha.co.jp/ as of Nov.17, 2004.

Oishi, Itsuo(1995) Eigo to Beigo sonotigaiwo yomitoku Tokyo: Maruzen.

Ohmura, Yoshio (1993) Mahikadono Igirisueigo Tokyo: Maruzen.

Richard Bucle, translated by Ono, Shigeru (1982) Eikoku shakaikaisou to gengohyougen ~U to Non-U no saikou~ Tokyo: Shubun international.

Tourism World Inc.(2004)” tabi.com” available at http://www.tabi.com/top/main.html as of Nov.17, 2004.

Vanessa Hardy, abridged and translated by Kato, Kyoko (1996) EigonosekaiBeigonosekai~sono rekisi, bunka, hyougen~ Tokyo: Koudansha.

Watanabe, Shouishi (1983) Standard English Lecture 3. The making of English Tongue Tokyo: Taishukan.

Table of contents

Abstract

  1. Introduction

  2. Literature

  3. Hypothesis

  4. Method

  5. Results: Average and comparison of intrinsic verses extrinsic motivation parts

6. Results: Average and comparison of each item

6-1. 1st and 4th year students

6-2. 4th year students and department of management students

7.  The way of classifying the questionnaire questions

8.  Conclusion

9. Bibliography

Appendix

A: Questionnaire on motivation for learning English (in Japanese)

B: Questionnaire on motivation for learning English (in English)

概要



私たち日本人は主に、英語を第二言語として学習している。一般的に中学校から授業のひとつとして学習するが、最近では小学校や幼稚園など早いうちから英語学習が導入されている。英語学習の動機は様々であるが、特に大学生においては動機の種類が多岐に及んでいる。以前の調査で、本学の英米学科の学生と経営学科の学生とでは、内発的動機と内発的動機の差があることがわかった。やはり英語を専攻する英米学科の学生は、おおむね内発的動機が高いことは明らかである。ではその英米学科の学生の英語学習動機は、大学生活においてどのように変化するのだろうか。以前と同じアンケートを用いて調査・研究を行った。

入学したばかりの1年生は英語学習動機が曖昧であり、授業を受けるにつれ動機がはっきりすると思われる。よって4年生の英語学習動機は、内発的動機がより強くなると仮定した。しかし結果はその逆で、1年生に比べて4年生は内発的動機が弱くなっていることが明らかになった。外発的動機に関しては1年生と4年生にあまり差はなく、内発的動機と外発的動機に完全な逆転関係がないことも立証された。


  1. Introduction

Today, the Japanese learn English as a second language, generally starting from junior high school and some elementary schools or kindergartens. However, the motivation for learning English differs among students.

There are two types of motivation for learning English: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation means making efforts for oneself without expecting any rewards or prizes. People who have this type of motivation aim at improving oneself such as competence and self-determination. Extrinsic motivation is learning to earn rewards, prizes or good grade in school. As this type of people expects the material things, they may become addicted to the material things and their behavior becomes difficult. Since this type of person tends to be addicted to expecting something, intrinsic motivation is difficult to come to them. People who have intrinsic motivation remember English for a long time because they learn of their own accord (Brown, 2000).

In terms of the sense of purpose, Higashi (2002) did a questionnaire survey for 1st and 4th year students in department of English in Kumamoto Gakuen University (KGU) and proved that the sense of purpose for learning English goes down as the grade goes up. There are also internal and external factors in the sense of purpose for learning English but this distinction is not so reflected in this survey and study. This study has been done putting emphasis on the sense of purpose.

Murakami (2002) has also studied in terms of the sense for 1st and 4th year students in department of English using different questionnaire. But its conclusion is that there are almost no changes between 1st and 4th year students.

In this study, 1st year students and 4th year students are compared in terms of motivation for learning English, within the limits of the department of English according to how their motivations change during their university days.


  1. Literature

There are many researches about the motivation for learning English. Not only in Japan but also all over the world where English is used. According to some sources, there are obvious differences between the students from the English department and the students from the other departments. This study is based on Takanashi (1994), who gave two examinations for 169 students in Fukuoka prefecture. One is the 5-point Likert scale and the other is the English ability test. He examined whether the mean value is different between the different classes. The classes are PE, mathematics and science, social studies, and English in private and national universities. The result suggests that the strength of motivation differs for each major. Significant differences between classes can be seen in the factors of “wish to acquire an applied skill (応用技能取得願望)”, “unity motivation (統合的動機)” and “grade-oriented (成績志向)”. In the group “wish to acquire an applied skill” alone a significant difference can be seen between just the English major class and the other classes. It is found that the English major students strongly have this motivation.

As for KGU, a research has been done in two classes: the department of management and the department of English, using Brown’s questionnaire (Appendix). According to the results, there is a distinct difference in intrinsic motivation. This result is very much like Takanashi’s research. However comparing the results item by item, it cannot be said that students in department of English have strong intrinsic motivation sweepingly.


  1. Hypothesis

According to previous research (Tagawa, 2004), it is obvious that students of the department of English have strong motivation for learning English. This time, concentrating on the research for the students of department of English, we see how they change or do not change their motivation during their university days. Though they have strong motivation for learning English, not all students but many students may have vague motivation. However, as they learn, they will find the obvious purpose by themselves. Benson (1991) has a view that more personal motivation becomes established for Japanese university students once their instrumental motivation naturally disappeared. So, it is conceivable that fourth year students’ intrinsic motivation goes up and extrinsic motivation goes down in comparison to first year students.

For each item, the big differences will be seen in the question①”I want to learn English well so that I can talk with native speakers of English.”, ②”I have set my own goals for learning English and want to be successful in reaching those goals.”, ③”English will help me to get a good job someday.” and ⑤”I hope to meet (or have already met) a special friend who speaks English. ”. These motivations will be stronger for 4th year students. As these motivations become stronger, extrinsic motivation such as the question⑧” My parents want me to learn English, so I’m here to please them.”, ⑨”I am studying English because I want to please my teacher and get good grades.” and ⑩“I am studying English because most of my friends are good in English.” will be weaker than that of 1st year students. The question ⑥”I am studying English because it is a required course in my school.” is also extrinsic motivation, but it will be strong as 1st year students. Required courses are important for both grades.


  1. Method

The survey has been done for 4th year students in department of English (30 students) in KGU using Brown’s questionnaire (appendix). Make a comparison between this result and the result of 1st year students in department of English (38 students) from previous research.

The questionnaire consists of two parts. Part I is about intrinsic motivation and part II is about extrinsic motivation. In Breaking The Language Barrier (Brown, 1991, p18) the contents are translated into Japanese. Score is 4-point Likert scales. The question③ “English will help me to get a good job someday.” and ④”English will help me to be successful in my studies.” In part I, “job” and “studies” can be considered pressure from outside, so these are not strictly intrinsic motivation. However, Brown considers them intrinsic motivation.

The average for each part and each item are worked out by grade.


  1. Results: Average and comparison of intrinsic verses extrinsic motivation parts



Table 1 Averages for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for 1st and 4th year English students


Figure 1 Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between 1st and 4th year English students

A difference can be seen in intrinsic motivation (part I), but not in extrinsic motivation (part II). In contrast to the hypothesis which suggests that intrinsic motivation of 4th year students should go up, the average of 1st year students is about 2 points higher than the average of 4th year students. These are conceivable as the causes:

      1. Few students learn or use English after they graduate

      2. Students who keep up their intrinsic motivation are limited to go abroad or aim at becoming an interpreter or translator.

      3. There are few occupations which require English.

      4. Students lost interest in English because of the reasons above or other reasons.

In part II, both grades have almost the same average. Though the intrinsic motivation of 4th year students is lower, their extrinsic motivation is also lower. These results show that there is no reversal between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.

6. Results: Average and comparison of each item

6-1. 1st and 4th year students



Table 2 Averages for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for 1st and 4th year English students


Figure 2 Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between 1st and 4th year English students

The biggest differences between 1st and 4th year students can be seen in the answers①”I want to learn English well so that I can talk with native speakers of English.”, ②”I have set my own goals for learning English and want to be successful in reaching those goals.”, ③”English will help me to get a good job someday.” and ⑦”I need to pass an English proficiency test (like the TOEFL or an entrance exam).” For the answers①, ② and ③, the averages of 4th year students are about 1 point lower than the averages of 1st year students in contrast to the hypothesis. The cause b) applies to the answers① and ②, and the cause c) applies to the answer③.

For the answer⑦, if it is TOEFL, cause b) or d) may be applied, but if it is entrance exam, this cause may not be applied, because these causes are related to intrinsic motivation. For this item (limited to entrance exam), it is conceivable that 1st year students just took the entrance exam for university and 4th year students may never have another entrance exam.

For the answer④”English will help me to be successful in my studies.” , the averages of 4th year students are a little lower than the averages of 1st year students. It is conceivable that 4th year students, who will soon graduate, may choose to just get credits rather than to get good grades.

The answer⑥”I am studying English because it is a required course in my school.” is only the item where the average of 4th year students is higher than the average of 1st year students. This is similar to the answer④. If they drop a required course, they cannot graduate.

The answer⑤”I hope to meet (or have already met) a special friend who speaks English. ” is not so different. It is rare to meet a special friend who speaks English and there are few opportunities in college. So, it is difficult to consider that this motivation changes during their university days.

The rest of the answers, ⑧”My parents want me to learn English, so I’m here to please them.” ⑨”I am studying English because I want to please my teacher and get good grades.” ⑩“I am studying English because most of my friends are good in English.”, have almost same averages. Motivation such as “my parents want”, “I want to please my teacher” or “most of my friends are good at English” can often be seen in younger students. The results show that university students, who decide and study their major alone and are independent of their parents, do not have this kind of motivation.

6-2. 4th year students and department of management students



In comparison between 1st and 4th year students, there are big differences in intrinsic motivation. 4th year students lose interest in English. Their loss of interest may be similar to the students who do not major in English. To inspect it, a comparison was made between 4th year students and 1st year students in the department of management. The average of the students in the department of management is from the previous result (Tagawa, 2004). The subjects are 1st year students (30 students) but they may not change their motivation for learning English in a big way. So this time, a comparison was made without distinction of grades.

Table 3 Averages for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for 4th year English students and management students


Figure 3 Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between 4th year English and management students

Though the intrinsic motivation of 4th year students becomes lower than 1st year students, it is still stronger than the department of management students. Their motivation becomes gradually lower and never approaches that of the other students who do not major in English.

7. The way of classifying the questionnaire questions

Based on the results above, the questionnaire can be classified in different way. Students really want to get a job using English, or they study and take an English proficiency test to develop their faculties, it is intrinsic motivation. However, if students have vague thoughts that English will help them to get a good job, or they are forced to study English and take a test, it is extrinsic motivation. One thing is obvious that it looks mixed the items of both motivations. Here is the one that can be conceivable:

Part I Completely intrinsic

① I want to learn English well so that I can talk with native speakers of English.

② I have set my own goals for learning English and want to be successful in reaching those goals.

⑤ I hope to meet (or have already met) a required course in my school or university.

Part II Mixed intrinsic/extrinsic

③ English will help me to get a good job someday.

④ English will help me to be successful in my studies.

⑥ I am studying English because it is required course in my school.

⑦ I need to pass an English proficiency test (like TOEFL or an entrance exam).

Part III Complete extrinsic

⑧ My parents want me to learn English, so I’m here to please them.

⑨ I am studying English because I want to please my teacher and get good grades.

⑩ I am studying English because most of my friends are good in English.

Part I is complete intrinsic motivation. Part II is mixed motivation. Part III is complete extrinsic motivation. Furthermore the items in part II can be classified into job and study. Mixed motivation may be either intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. It depends on the people who learn English.



Table 4 Averages for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for 1st and 4th year English students (Based on the classification above)


Figure 4 Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation between 1st and 4th year English students (Based on the classification above)

These results clearly show even more strongly that there is no reversal between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation than the comparison in section 5.

The differences between the 1st and 4th year students in parts I and part II show that the great loss of the intrinsic motivation in the 4th year students. Its differences are more than 1 point for both parts. Whether the in-between motivation is intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation for them, it can be said that they have lost their sense of purpose for learning English.

The result in part III is almost equal and both average points are very low. This indicates that their complete extrinsic motivation almost never changes during their university days, and indeed that factors like questions⑧-⑩ have no relation to learning English for students in the department of English, as the analyses in section 6-1 related.


  1. Conclusion

In terms of the hypothesis that 4th year students’ intrinsic motivation goes up and extrinsic motivation goes down in comparison to 1st year students, the results of the survey differ for 1st and 4th year English students. Specifically, it is found out that intrinsic motivation becomes lower during their university days. However extrinsic motivation does not change in a big way. Only the question⑦”I need to pass an English proficiency test (like TOEFL or an entrance exam).” becomes lower. On the other hand, the 4th year English students’ motivation is not like that of the students in department of management. Though there are many differences, the item that its average is highest for both grades is question①”I want to learn English well so that I can talk with native speakers of English.” then next is ②”I have set my own goals for learning English and want to be successful in reaching those goals.”. Irrespective of their grades, students in the department of English still strongly show intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic motivation.

In order to make a closer survey and study of this thesis, it would have been better to do the questionnaire survey for 4th year students in department of management. This would enable us to make a comparison of 4th year students between the department of English and the department of management. Another comparison that could be made is the change of motivation in both departments. In section 6-2, the comparison is made on the assumption that the students in department of management may not change their motivation for learning English in a big way. But this can not be concluded at this stage. To prove this assumption, this survey and comparison are necessary.

Moreover reconsidering the questionnaire is also necessary. The way of classification above is based on the results of this survey and study. If a different classification had been done before the survey, the results and consideration would differ from the results above.

The results in section 7 show the change of motivation for the students in the department of English more clearly. But to make the most use of mixed motivation, it is necessary to analyze whether it is intrinsic motivation of extrinsic motivation for each factor. It may also be necessary to define mixed motivation and see how it relates to both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. In this study, there was no reversal between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. But same thing cannot be said for mixed motivation.

Also, way of translating the questionnaire may have effected the results. In this study, the translation has been done literally. But for example, if the question⑦ is changed from “~しなければならない” to “~したい”, the former may be extrinsic motivation and the latter may be both intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. So the difference of vocabulary is important. To explore motivation in more detail, making or choosing different questionnaires is very important. For intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, there are many more factors indeed.
9. Bibliography

Brown, H. D. (1991). Breaking The Language Barrier. Intercultural Press, Inc., 18-19.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 160-166

Kosino, T., Fukazawa, S. and Tonoshige, T. (2002). Kokosei no Eigo gakushu doki ni kansuru jisshoteki kenkyu. Hiroshima daigaku daigakuin kyoikugaku kenkyuka kiyou dai ni bu, 51,147-156.

Hayashi, M. (2002). A Correlational Study of Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation and English Proficiency: The case of Japanese University students. Year of 2002 Sotsugyo ronbunshu Hayashi Hideo Kenkyu shitsu Kumamoto Gakuen University TheYear of 2002 Sotsugyo ronbunshu Hayashi Hideo kenkyu shitsu Kumamoto Gakuen University The Faculty of Foreign Language of the department of English, 65-81.

Higashi, A. (2002). Comparison between grades of the sense of purpose of the English study in a British-American subject of study. Year of 2002 Sotsugyo ronbunshu Hayashi Hideo kenkyu shitsu Kumamoto Gakuen University The Faculty of Foreign Language of the department of English, 83-99.

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Appendix

A: Questionnaire on motivation for learning English (in Japanese)



英語学習についてのアンケートです。あてはまる数字に○をつけてください。

4 その通りだ

3 どちらかといえば当てはまる

2 どちらかといえば当てはまらない

1 まったく当てはまらない

PartⅠ



  1. ネイティブ(英語を母国語とする人)と話せるようになるために英語を勉強している           

    4  3  2  1



  2. 英語を学ぶための目標があり、その目標達成のために勉強している   

4  3  2  1



  1. 将来よい職業に就くのに役に立つと思うから英語を勉強している      

4  3  2  1



  1. よい成績をとるために勉強している                     

4  3  2  1



  1. 英語を話す特定の人と出会いたい、またはすでに出会っていてコミュニケーションをとりたいから勉強している                 

4  3  2  1



PartⅡ



  1. 学校で英語が必修単位だから勉強している               

4  3  2  1



  1. 英語の実力テスト(TOEFLや入学試験など)に合格しなければいけないので勉強している                                

4  3  2  1



  1. 両親に英語の勉強をさせられていてその期待に応えるために勉強している  

4  3  2  1



  1. 先生を喜ばせて、良い成績を修めたいから勉強している    

4  3  2  1



  1. 多くの友人が英語を得意としているから自分も勉強している

4  3  2  1



ご協力ありがとうございました。

B: Questionnaire on motivation for learning English (in English)



Circle the number that best describes how you feel about leaning English.

4

I strongly agree. This statement describes me very well.

3

I somewhat agree. This statement probably describes me.

2

I somewhat disagree. This statement probably does not describe me.

1

I strongly disagree. This statement definitely does not describe me.

2014-07-19 18:44
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