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ATATÜRK’S LİFE




SİNOP



Atatürk Anatolian High School



Mustafa Kemel ATATÜRK’S LİFE


Mehmet Fatih ÖZTÜRK



10/A(Numerical)



Number:29



Teacher : Serpil ALTUNSOY



2011-2012

İstiklâl Marşı



Korkma, sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak;
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.
Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül! Ne bu şiddet, bu celâl?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk'a tapan milletimin istiklal!
Ben ezelden beridir hür yaşadım, hür yaşarım;
Hangi çılgın bana zincir vuracakmış? Şaşarım!
Kükremiş sel gibiyim, bendimi çiğner, aşarım.
Yırtarım dağları, enginlere sığmam, taşarım.
Garbın âfâkını sarmışsa çelik zırhlı duvar.
Benim iman dolu göğsüm gibi serhaddim var.
Ulusun, korkma! Nasıl böyle bir imânı boğar,
'Medeniyet!' dediğin tek dişi kalmış canavar?
Arkadaş, yurduma alçakları uğratma sakın;
Siper et gövdeni, dursun bu hayâsızca akın.
Doğacaktır sana va'dettiği günler Hakk'ın,
Kim bilir, belki yarın, belki yarından da yakın.
Bastığın yerleri 'toprak' diyerek geçme, tanı!
Düşün altındaki binlerce kefensiz yatanı.
Sen şehid oğlusun, incitme, yazıktır, atanı.
Verme, dünyâları alsan da bu cennet vatanı.
Kim bu cennet vatanın uğruna olmaz ki feda?
Şühedâ fışkıracak toprağı sıksan, şühedâ!
Cânı, cânânı, bütün varımı alsın da Hudâ,
Etmesin tek vatanımdan beni dünyâda cüdâ.
Rûhumun senden İlahî, şudur ancak emeli:
Değmesin ma' bedimin göğsüne nâ-mahrem eli!
Bu ezanlar-ki şehâdetleri dinin temeli-
Ebedî yurdumun üstünde benim inlemeli.
O zaman vecd ile bin secde eder -varsa- taşım.
Her cerîhamdan, İlâhî, boşanıp kanlı yaşım;
Fışkırır  rûh-ı mücerred gibi yerden na'şım;
O zaman yükselerek arşa değer belki başım!
Dalgalan sen de şafaklar gibi ey şanlı hilâl!
Olsun artık dökülen kanlarımın hepsi helâl.
Ebediyyen sana yok, ırkıma yok izmihlâl;
Hakkıdır, hür yaşamış, bayrağımın hürriyet,
Hakkıdır, Hakk'a tapan milletimin istiklâl!




Mehmet Akif ERSOY









İçindekiler


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Life 6

Republicanism 10

Populism 11

Secularism 12

Politics and religion 12

State and religion 13

Revolutionism 13

EVENTS IN ATATÜRK\'S LIFE IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
16



Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Life


Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey.



Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881 in Salonika. His father's name was Ali Riza Efendi. His father was customs official. His mother's name was Zübeyde Hanim.



For his primary education he went to the school of Semsi Efendi in Salonika. Mustafa and his mother went to live with his uncle in the countryside. His mother brought him up. Life continued like this for a time. Mustafa worked on the farm but his mother began to worry about his lack of schooling. It was finally decided that he should live with his mother's sister in Salonika.



He entered the Military Middle School in Salonika. In 1895 after finishing the Military Middle School Mustafa Kemal entered the Military High School (Askeri Idadisi ) in Manastir. After successfully completing his studies at the Manastir Military School

Mustafa Kemal went to Istanbul and on the 13th of March 1899 he entered the infantry class of the Military Academy (Harbiye Harp Okulu).



After finishing the Military Academy

Mustafa Kemal went on to the General Staff College in 1902. He was graduated from the Academy with the rank of captain on the 11th of January

1905.




October 1906
Mustafa Kemal and his friends from the secret society "Fatherland and Freedom" in Damascus.




October 31 1918
Mustafa Kemal becomes Commander of Lightning Group of Armies.



In 1906

he was sent to Damascus. Mustafa Kemal and his friends founded a society which they called "Vatan ve Hürriyet" (Fatherland and Freedom) in Damascus. On his own initiative

he went to Tripoli during the war with Italy in 1911 and took part in the defense of Derne and Tobruk. While he was still in Libya

the Balkan War broke out. He served in the Balkan War as a successful Commander (1912-1914). At the end of the Balkan War

Mustafa Kemal was appointed military attache in Sofia.



When Mustafa Kemal was in Sofia

the First World War broke out. He was made Commander of the Anafartalar Group on 8th of August

1915. In the First World War he was in command of the Turkish forces at Anafartalar at a critical moment. This was when the Allied landings in the Dardanelles took place and he personally saved the situation in Gallipoli. During the battle Mustafa Kemal was hit by shrapnel above the heart

but a watch in his breast pocket saved his life. Mustafa Kemal explained his state of mind as he accepted this great responsibility: "Indeed

it was not easy to shoulder such responsibility

but as I had decided not to live to see my country's destruction

I accepted it proudly". He then served in the Caucasus and in Syria and just before the armistice in 1918 he was placed in command of the Lightning Army group in Syria. After the armistice (peace agreement)

he returned to Istanbul.
After the Armistice of Mondoros

the countries that had signed the agreement did not consider it necessary to abide by its terms. Under various pretexts the navies and the armies of the Entente (France

Britain and Italy) were in Istanbul

while the province of Adana had been occupied by the French

and Urfa and Maras by the British. There were Italian soldiers in Antalya and Konya

and British soldiers in Merzifon and Samsun. There were foreign officers officers and agents almost everywhere in the country.




April 30. 1919
Mustafa Kemal appointed Inspector of 9th Army based in Erzurum with wide powers.



May 16, 1919
Mustafa Kemal leaves Istanbul.
May 19, 1919
Mustafa Kemal lands in Samsun. This date was recorded as the start of War



July 8, 1919
Mustafa Kemal resigns from the post of Inspector of 3rd Army and from the army.

July 23 ,1919

Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Erzurum Congress.
September 4, 1919
Mustafa Kemal elected Chairman of Sivas Congress.
December 27

,

1919
Mustafa Kemal arrives in Ankara with the Excutive Committee.





April 23

,

1920
Mustafa Kemal opens the Turkish Grand National Assembly in Ankara.
May 11

,

1920
Mustafa Kemal is condemned to death by the government in Istanbul.



On the 15th of May 1919 the Greek Army landed in Izmir with the agreement of the Entente. Under difficult conditions

Mustafa Kemal decided to go to Anatolia. On 16th of May 1919

he left Istanbul in a small boat called the "Bandirma". Mustafa Kemal was warned that his enemies had planned to sink his ship on the way out

but he was not afraid and on Monday19th May 1919

he arrived in Samsun and set foot on Anatolian soil. That date marks the beginning of the Turkish War of Independence. It is also the date that Mustafa Kemal later chose as his own birthday. A wave of national resistance arose in Anatolia. A movement had already begun in Erzurum in the east and Mustafa Kemal quickly placed himself at the head of the whole organization. The congresses in Erzurum and Sivas in the Summer of 1919 declared the national aims by a national pact.
When the foreign armies occupied Istanbul

on 23th of April 1920 Mustafa Kemal opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly and hence established a provisional new government

the centre of which was to be Ankara. On the same day Mustafa Kemal was elected President of the Grand National Assembly. The Greeks

profiting by the rebellion of Çerkez Ethem and acting in collaboration with him

started to advance towards Bursa and Eskisehir. On the 10th of January 1921

the enemy forces were heavily defeated by the Commander of the Western Front

colonel Ismet and his troops. On the 10th of July 1921

the Greeks launched a frontal attack with five divisions on Sakarya. After the great battle of Sakarya

which continued without interruption from the 23rd of August to the 13th of September

the Greek Army was defeated and had to retreat. After the battle

the Grand National Assembly gave Mustafa Kemal the titles of Ghazi and Marshal. Mustafa Kemal decided to drive the enemies out of his country and he gave the order that the attack should be launched on the morning of the 26th of August 1922. The bulk of the enemy forces were surrounded and killed or captured on the 30th of August at Dumlupinar.



The enemy Commander-in-Chief

General Trikupis

was captured. Or the 9th of September 1922 the fleeing enemy forces were driven into the sea near Izmir. The Turkish forces

under the extraordinary military skills of Kemal Atatürk

fought a War of Independence against the occupying Allied powers and won victories on every front all over the country.





On the 24th of July 1923

with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne

the independence of the new Turkish State was recognized by all countries. Mustafa Kemal built up a new

sturdy

vigorous state. On the 29th of October 1923

he declared the new Turkish Republic. Following the declaration of the Republic he started to his radical reforms to modernize the country. Mustafa Kemal was elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey.




November 10 1938
Atatürk dies at 09:05 in Dolmabahçe Palace Istanbul



Atatürk made frequent tours of the country. While visiting Gemlik and Bursa

Atatürk caught a chill. He returned to Istanbul to be treated and to rest

but

unfortunately Atatürk was seriously ill. At 9.05 AM on the 10th of November 1938

Atatürk died

but he attained immortality in the eyes of his people. Since the moment of his death

his beloved name and memory have been engraved on the hearts of his people. As a commander he had been the victorious of many battles

as a leader he had influenced the masses

as a statesman he had led a successful administration

and as a revolutionary he had striven to alter the social

cultural

economic

political and legal structure of society at its roots. He was one of the most eminent personalities in the history of the world

history will count him among the most glorious sons of the Turkish nation and one of the greatest leaders of mankind.






Ataturk's

principles


Republicanism


R

epublicanism Kemalist ideology replaced the absolutism of the monarchy with the rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue with an emphasis on liberty practiced by citizens. Kemalist republicanism defines a constitutional republic, where representatives of the people are elected and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the government's power over citizens. The heads of state and other officials are chosen by election, rather than inheriting their positions, and their decisions are subject to judicial review. In defending the change from Ottoman State, Kemalism claims that all laws of Republic of Turkey should be inspired by actual needs here on Earth as a basic fact of

national life. Kemalism asserts that only the republican system can best represent the wishes

of the people.Among many forms of "republican systems," the "Kemalist republic" is a representative democracy with a Parliament elected in general elections, a President as head of state elected by Parliament and serving for a limited term, a Prime Minister appointed by the President, and other Ministers appointed by Parliament. The Kemalist President does not have direct executive powers, but has limited veto powers, and the right to contest with referendum. The day-to-day running of government is the responsibility of the Council of Ministers formed by the Prime Minister and the other Ministers. There is a separation of powers between the executive, the legislative (Parliament) and the judiciary, in which no one branch of government has authority over another–although parliament is charged with the supervision of the Council of Ministers, which can be compelled to resign by a vote of no-confidence.The Kemalist republican state is a state whose three organs of state are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with one constitutionally created legislature. For some issues, the political power of government is transferred to lower levels, to local elected assemblies represented by mayors, but the central government retains the principal right.


Populism



P

opulism is defined as a social revolution in terms of its content and goals, and differs from the western understanding of the term populism greatly. This revolution was led by an elite with an orientation towards the best interest of the general public. The Kemalist reforms brought about a revolutionary change in the status of women. Women were granted the right to vote in 1934.



Atatürk stated on a number of occasions that the legitimate rulers of Turkey were common citizens, such as villagers and workers. At the time, this was actually a goal rather than a reality in Turkey.



Kemalist ideology was, in fact, based on the supreme value of Turkish citizenship. A sense of pride associated with this citizenship would give the needed psychological spur for people to work harder and achieve a sense of unity and national identity.







Secularism



T

he secularism of Kemalist ideology aims to banish religious interference in government affairs, and vice versa; solidified in public education and government-subsidized cultural and legal affairs. It is a rationalist, anti-clerical secularism, differing from that in most predominantly Christian societies, but similar to the concept of laïcité in France. Many of Atatürk\'s reforms were brought forward to establish secularism, such as the establishment of a modern, secular school system. The roots of Kemalist secularism extend to the Ottoman Empire, especially the Tanzimat period and the later Second Constitutional Era. In that period the Ottoman parliament pursued secular policies, which was stated as the reason for the Countercoup (1909), because, as the crowd claimed, "the state's hostility to religion became clear". The allegation of hostility to religion of the Ottoman parliament's secular policies also factored in the Arab Revolt during WWI.



Kemalist secularism does not imply or advocate agnosticism or nihilism; it means freedom of thought and independence of the institutions of the state from the dominance of religious thought and religious institutions. In neutralizing political Islam as a force Kemalism aimed at developing a pluralistic (liberal) Islam on the social front. The Kemalist principle of secularism is not against an enlightened Islam, but against an Islam opposed to and fighting modernization and democracy. The social narrative of Kemalist secularism continues into the 21st century, with a Turkish Islam rooted in Sufism, particularly Naqshbandi Sufi orders, and punctuated by frontier conditions of Turkey.



Politics and religion



T

he Kemalist form of separation of state and religion pursued the replacement of a complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law). The biggest change in this perspective was the abolishment of the Caliphate on March 3, 1924. The removal of the Ottoman Caliphate was followed by the removal of its political mechanisms. The article stating that "the established religion of Turkey is Islam" was removed from the constitution on February 5, 1937.



From a political perspective, Kemalism is an anti-clerical secularism which abolished the religious political establishment of the Ottoman Empire. In the Kemalist political perspective politicians cannot claim to be the protector of any religion or religious sect, and such claims constitute sufficient legal grounds for the permanent banning of political parties. The current Prime Minister of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdo

ğ

an

, while mayor of Istanbul, was once jailed for reciting poetry laced with aggressively religious terms, which was deemed by the judiciary to advocate separatism among the Turkish people, into camps of "believers" and "non-believers".



Controversially, the constitutional concept of laïcité is also used to justify a ban on Muslim women wearing Islamic coverings such as headscarfs in public universities and other public buildings. Joost Lagendijk, a member of the European Parliament and chair of the Joint Parliamentary Committee with Turkey, has publicly criticized these clothing restrictions for Muslim women; whereas the European Court of Human Rights ruled in numerous cases that such restrictions in public buildings and educational institutions do not constitute a violation of human rights.



State and religion



A

ccording to the Kemalist perception, the Turkish state is to stand at an equal distance from every religion, neither promoting nor condemning any set of religious beliefs. The Republic of Turkey is neutral in religious affairs. Kemalism has an "Active Neutrality" and actions related to religion should be carefully analyzed and evaluated by the government through the Presidency of Religious Affairs, which is responsible for managing the religious affairs and institutions in the country. The Presidency of Religious Affairs pursues the responsibility for planning, coordinating, and implementing the balance.



Kemalism has to balance the space between different religious sects. Religious education, which was originally left to private initiative with after-school courses until 1980, when it was brought to secondary education with a formal curriculum covering religious doctrines. This change of politics to balance religious doctrine is debated. There are three main ideological perspectives in this debate. The first one views this change as a breach of Kemalist secularist ideology, and demands a return to the previous policy. The second perspective accepts the religious education but objects to its compulsory position. The third position accepts the compulsory position except those responsible for minority communities, who wish to have their own religious courses, within the boundaries of the regulations administered by the Ministry of Education.



Revolutionism



R

evolutionism a principle formulated by Atatürk, which means that the country should replace the traditional institutions and concepts with modern institutions and concepts. This principle advocated the need for fundamental social change through revolution as a strategy to achieve a modern society. The core of the revolution, in the Kemalist sense, was an accomplished fact. In Kemalist sense there is no possibility of return to the old systems which were deemed backward.



The principle of revolutionism went beyond the recognition of the reforms made during Atatürk's lifetime. Atatürk's revolutions in the social and political life are accepted as irreversible. Atatürk never entertained the possibility of a pause or transition phase during the course of the progressive unfolding or implementation of the revolution. The current understanding of this concept can be described that active modification. Turkey and its society, taking over institutions from the West, must add Turkish traits and patterns to them and adapt them to the Turkish culture, according to Kemalism. The making of the Turkish traits and patterns of these reforms takes generations of cultural and social experience (which results in the collective memory of the Turkish nation).



Nationalism



N

ationalism The Kemalist revolution aimed to create a nation state from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire.Kemalist ideology defines the "Turkish People" as "those who protect and promote the moral, spiritual, cultural and humanistic values of the Turkish Nation." Kemalist ideology defines the "Turkish Nation" as a nation of Turkish People who always love and seek to exalt their family, country and nation, who know their duties and responsibilities towards the democratic, secular and social state governed by the rule of law, founded on human rights, and on the tenets laid down in the preamble to the constitution of the Republic of Turkey.



Mustafa Kemal Atatürk defines the Turkish Nation by saying "the folk which constitutes the Republic of Turkey is called the Turkish Nation." Article 301 of the Turkish Penal code made it a crime to insult Turkishness (Turkish:

türklük

), but under pressure of the EU, this was changed in 2008 to protect the "Turkish nation" instead of Turkish ethnicity in 2008, an 'imagined' nationhood of people living within the National Pact (Turkish:

Misak-ı Milli

) borders.



Kemalist nationalism is an extension of the Kemalist modernization movement. It was brought against the political domination of sheikhs, tribal leaders and Islamism (Islam as a political system). Initially the declaration of the republic was perceived as

"Returning to the days of the first caliphs"

. However, Kemalist nationalism aimed to shift the political legitimacy from autocracy (Ottoman Dynasty), theocracy (Caliphate) and feudalism (tribal leaders) to the active participation of its citizenry, the Turks. Active participation, or the "will of the people", was established with the republican regime and Turkishness rather than other forms of affiliations that were promoted. The shift in affiliation was symbolized with.



Statism




S

tatism Kemal Atatürk made clear in his statements and policies that Turkey's complete modernization was very much dependent on economic and technological development. The principle of Kemalist Statism is generally interpreted to mean that the state was to regulate the country's general economic activities and the state was to engage in areas where private enterprise was not willing to do so, or where private enterprise had proven to be inadequate, or if national interest required it. In the application of the principle of statism, however, the state emerged not only as the principal source of economic activity, but also as the owner of the major industries of the country.







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