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References - старонка 8

24

(1), 11-28.

Abstract: The pharmacological action of 6 main Kampo formulations ( 1.Mao -to: (sic): MA HUANG TANG; 2.Shimbu -to: (sic): ZHEN WU TANG; 3.Ninjin -to: (sic): REN SHEN TANG; 4.Shigyaku-san: (sic): Sr NI SAN; 5.Keishi-to: (sic): GUI ZHI TANG; 6.Shimotsu - to: (sic): SI WU TANG) on circulatory and autonomic nervous system were studied. 7 healthy adult males(age, 22.3 +/- 1.8 years old) had 6 basic Kampo formulations, followed by noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure(SBP), mean blood pressure(MBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP),heart rate(HR), stroke volume(SV),cardiac output (CO), cardiacindex (CI), total peripheral resistance(TPR) by means of systolic area method of brachialsphygmography, every 30 minutes for 2 hours. As results, Mao - to induced an increase of BP,HR,SV,CO and CI, but a decrease of TPR. Keishi - to induced an increase of SEP and SV, and Shimotsu-to induced an increase of DBP and MBP, HR was slowed during former period after oral administration of Shigyaku - san, and later period after oral administration of Shimbu-to and Shimotsu-to. Regarding autonomic activity, Mao- to(former period of experiment), Shimbu - to and Shimotsu-to induced supression of sympathetic activity, on the other hand, Mao-to (later period of experiment) and Shiyaku - san showed a tendency of parasympathomimetic action. Mao -to induced the strongest activation of circulatory system of 6 main farmulations, and showed change of autonomic nervous activity, however, the change of circulatory and automonic nervous activity were not coincident each other. It was speculated that comprehensive mechanism of Mao-to were not only dependent of ephedrin, main active constituent of Mao, but also dependent on Keishi's vasodilatory action in it. Ninjin - to showed no actions on circulatory or autonomic system. This is indicated that there are difference of actions on circulatory and autonomic nervous system among 6 main Kampo fromulations

Keywords: 6 main Kampo formulae/activation/activity/ACUPUNCTURE/administration/adult/area method/autonomic/autonomic nervous system/blood/Chinese/circulatory parameter/CO/COMMUNICATION/CONTINGENT NEGATIVE-VARIATION/diastolic/experiment/hand/induced/Japan/measurement/mechanism/medicine/method/nervous system/noninvasive/oral/parasympathtic nervous function/peripheral/ROAD/SEP/SI/stroke/sympathetic/sympathetic activity/sympathtic nervous function/systolic/systolic blood/total

Wu, S.K. and Williams, T. (1999), Paralympic swimming performance, impairment, and the functional classification system. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly,

16

(3), 251-270.

Abstract: The aim was to analyze the relationship between performance and classes of swimmers and between types of physical impairments and medal winners. Participants were 374 swimmers at the 1996 Paralympic Games with six types of impairments: poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, amputation, dysmelia, and les autres. Data included performance times, gender, classification, swimming stroke and distance, and type of impairment. ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation treatment of data revealed significant differences in swimmers' mean speeds across classes and positive correlations in swimmers' classes and swimming speeds in all male and female events; no type of impairment dominated the opportunity to participate, win medals, or advance to the finals. It was concluded that the current swimming classification system is effective with respect to generating fair competition for most swimmers

Keywords: amputation/cerebral/cerebral palsy/China/classification/correlation/DISABILITIES/female/functional/gender/HUMAN/impairment/impairments/injury/KINETIC/KINETICS/male/performance/poliomyelitis/spinal/spinal cord/spinal cord injury/SPORTS/stroke/swimmers/swimming/Taiwan/treatment/types

Corrao, G., Bagnardi, V., Zambon, A. and Arico, S. (1999), Exploring the dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of several alcohol-related conditions: a meta-analysis. Addiction,

94

(10), 1551-1573.

Abstract: Objective. To compare the strength of the evidence provided by the epidemiological literature on the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of sh cancers (oral cavity, oesophagus, colorectum, liver, larynx, breast), hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, gastric and duodenal ulcer, liver cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, pancreatitis and injures and adverse effects. Methods. A search of the epidemiological literature from 1966 to 1998 was performed by several bibliographic databases. Meta-regression models were fitted considering fixed and random models and linear and non- linear effects of alcohol intake on the risk of each condition. The effects of some characteristics of the studies including an index of their quality were considered as putative sources of heterogeneity of the estimates. Publication bias was also investigated by asymmetry of funnel plots. Results. Of the 397 initially reviewed studies, 200 were selected for meta- analysis. Since qualitative characteristics of the studies were often significant sources of heterogeneity among them, the estimates of the pooled dose-response slopes were based only on the 123 studies with higher quality score and/or reporting adjusted estimates of relative risks. Higher alcohol-related risks were found for liver cirrhosis, neoplasms of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts, haemorrhagic stroke and injuries and adverse effects. Weaker bur significant associations were found for colorectum, liver and breast cancers, essential hypertension and chronic pancreatitis. For all these conditions, low intakes, corresponding to daily consumption of two drinks or two glasses of wine (25 g/day), have shown significant risks. Ischaemic stroke and gastric and duodenal ulcer seem independent of alcohol intake. The area in which the study was performed, the study's design and the outcome variable differently affected the slopes. Conclusions. The small number of sufficiently reliable studies, the strong indications of heterogeneity across them and the suspicion of publication bias suggest that there is a great need for well- conducted epidemiological studies performed in several countries, to examine the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of several alcohol-related conditions, as well as the role of drinking pattern in determining the risk

Keywords: ADDICTION/adverse effects/alcohol/alcohol consumption/alcohol intake/analysis/association/asymmetry/BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION/bias/breast/bur/CANCER/cerebrovascular/cerebrovascular diseases/chronic/cirrhosis/consumption/daily/design/diseases/dose-response/drinking/effects/ENGLAND/epidemiological studies/essential/essential hypertension/haemorrhagic stroke/heterogeneity/hypertension/index/injuries/Italy/larynx/liver/liver cirrhosis/liver diseases/LIVER-CIRRHOSIS/low/meta- analysis/meta-analysis/METAANALYSIS/models/MORTALITY/neoplasms/oral/outcome/pancreatitis/POPULATIONS/quality/respiratory/risk/risks/score/small/strength/stroke/studies/upper/wine

Collins, H.L., Rodenbaugh, D.W., Murphy, T.P., Kulics, J.M., Bailey, C.M. and DiCarlo, S.E. (1999), An inquiry-based teaching tool for understanding arterial blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular function. Advances in Physiology Education,

22

(1), S15-S28.

Abstract: Educators are placing a greater emphasis on the development of cooperative laboratory experiences that supplement the traditional lecture format. The new laboratory materials should encourage active learning, problem-solving, and inquiry-based approaches. To address these goals, we developed a laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to the hemodynamic variables (heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and compliance) that alter arterial pressure. For this experience, students are presented with "unknown" chart recordings illustrating pulsatile arterial pressure before and in response to several interventions. Students must analyze and interpret these unknown recordings and match each recording with the appropriate intervention. These active learning procedures help students understand and apply basic science concepts in a challenging and interactive format. Furthermore, laboratory experiences may enhance the students' level of understanding and ability to synthesize and apply information. In conducting this exercise, students are introduced to the joys and excitement of inquiry-based learning through experimentation

Keywords: arterial/arterial blood pressure/arterial pressure/blood/blood pressure/blood pressure regulation/cardiovascular/cardiovascular function/cardiovascular physiology/collaborative learning/compliance/development/exercise/experience/function/heart/heart rate/hemodynamic/information/inquiry-based learning/intervention/learning/peripheral/peripheral resistance/PHYSIOLOGICAL/pressure/rate/regulation/resistance/response/stroke/stroke volume/students/teaching/total/total peripheral resistance/understanding/volume

Laughlin, M.H. (1999), Cardiovascular response to exercise. Advances in Physiology Education,

22

(1), S244-S259.

Abstract: This article is intended for instructors who teach cardiovascular physiology. In our physiology course exercise physiology is used as a tool to review and integrate cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. It is assumed that the students already have mastered the fundamentals of cardiovascular and respiratory physiology. Because this paper is part of a cardiovascular refresher course, I have deleted much of the respiratory physiology. The objectives of this presentation are for the student to 1) understand the relationship between maximal oxygen consumption and endurance during sustained exercise and be able to define "maximal oxygen consumption"; 2) understand the determinants of maximal oxygen consumption; 3) understand the effects of dynamic exercise on the cardiovascular system and mechanisms for these effects; 4) understand the relationships between exercise intensity and major cardiorespiratory parameters, including heart rate, cardiac output, blood how distribution, left ventricular stroke volume, arterial pressures, total peripheral resistance, and arterial and venous blood oxygen content; 5) be able to compare and contrast the cardiovascular effects of dynamic and isometric exercise in man and the mechanisms responsible for the major differences; and 6) be able to apply knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of exercise to understanding causes of cardiovascular symptoms in disease and in diagnosis of disease states. This material contains many areas that stimulate discussion with students and allow exploration of concepts that are challenging for the student. This give and take between teachers and student is difficult to summarize in an article of this sort. Therefore, subjects that in my experience often stimulate questions and discussion with the students are indicated in the text

Keywords: arterial/blood/cardiac/cardiac output/cardiorespiratory/cardiovascular/cardiovascular effects/cardiovascular physiology/cardiovascular system/causes/consumption/course/determinants/diagnosis/disease/distribution/dynamic exercise/effects/endurance/exercise/exercise intensity/experience/heart/heart rate/isometric exercise/knowledge/left/left ventricular/left ventricular stroke volume/man/maximal oxygen consumption/oxygen/oxygen consumption/oxygen content/peripheral/peripheral resistance/PHYSIOLOGICAL/physiology/presentation/rate/relationships/resistance/respiratory/response/review/stroke/stroke volume/students/symptoms/total/total peripheral resistance/understanding/ventricular stroke volume/volume

Krasnoff, J. and Painter, P. (1999), The physiological consequences of bed rest and inactivity. Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy,

6

(2), 124-132.

Abstract: Most dialysis patients experience prolonged periods of physical inactivity and often bedrest. The physiological consequences of bed rest and inactivity are many and detrimentally affect the functioning of many bodily systems, several of which affect physical functioning. Reductions in plasma volume reduce cardiac filling, stroke volume, and cardiac output. Skeletal muscle fiber size, diameter, and capillarity are reduced, as is bone density. These changes result in profound reductions in physical work capacity. The effects of bed rest and inactivity in patients with chronic renal failure may have more serious consequences, in that they may exacerbate the pathophysiology of renal failure such as cardiac dysfunction, anemia, muscle wasting, muscle weakness, neuropathy, glucose intolerance, and reduced bone density. (C) 1999 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc

Keywords: affect/anemia/bed rest/BONE/bone density/CA/cardiac/cardiac dysfunction/cardiac filling/cardiac output/chronic/chronic renal failure/CO/deconditioning/density/dialysis/dialysis patients/dysfunction/effects/end stage renal disease/EXERCISE/experience/failure/fiber/glucose/glucose intolerance/inactivity/INDEPENDENCE/METABOLISM/muscle/MUSCLE MASS/neuropathy/PA/pathophysiology/patients/PHILADELPHIA/physiological/plasma/plasma volume/PREDNISONE/prolonged/RENAL/renal failure/RESPONSES/size/STRENGTH/stroke/stroke volume/TURNOVER/volume/wasting/weakness/work/WORK CAPACITY/YOUNG SUBJECTS

Fodor, P.B. and Vogt, P.A. (1999), Power-assisted lipoplasty (PAL): A clinical pilot study comparing PAL to traditional lipoplasty (TL). Aesthetic Plastic Surgery,

23

(6), 379-385.

Abstract: The subject of this paper is a study designed to compare power- assisted lipoplasty (PAL) to traditional lipoplasty (TL) in 30 patients. PAL was used on one side and TL was used on the matching contralateral body area. In PAL, a cannula powered by medical-grade nitrogen (N-2) reciprocates between 2000 and 4000 cpm with a 2-mm stroke. The device is commercially offered by MicroAire Surgical Instruments. While there was no difference in the speed of recovery or in the aesthetic quality of the result between the two sides, PAL was found considerably superior as far as ease of fat extraction

Keywords: body/contralateral/EXPERIENCE/fat/lipoplasty/LIPOSUCTION/MicroAire Surgical Instruments/MULTICENTER/NEW-YORK/patients/power/power-assisted lipoplasty (PAL)/quality/recovery/SAFETY/speed/stroke

Cassidy, T.P., Bruce, D.W., Lewis, S. and Gray, C.S. (1999), The association of visual field deficits and visuo-spatial neglect in acute right-hemisphere stroke patients. Age and Ageing,

28

(3), 257-260.

Abstract: Background: visuo-spatial neglect (VSN) after stroke is associated with a poor prognosis for rehabilitation. The coexistence of a visual field deficit (VFD) with VSN may be associated with impaired visuo-spatial functioning and thereby poor functional outcome. Objective: to determine whether the presence of a VFD (i) exacerbates VSN and (ii) influences recovery of VSN. Methods: a prospective study of consecutive acute (<7 days), Fight-hemisphere stroke patients who were able to undergo detailed assessment of visuo-spatial functioning and visual fields. Clinical assessment and a standardized neuropsychological test was administered by one observer, followed by independent assessment of visual fields by a second observer. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks with 4-weekly re-assessments. Results: 44 consecutive patients (23 women) with a first in a lifetime, acute hemisphere stroke were recruited. Twenty had VSN and VFD, seven VSN only, one VFD only and 17 had normal visual fields and no neglect. The finding of a VFD was significantly associated with the presence of VSN (P<0.0001). Patients with both VFD and VSN had a significantly lower score on the behavioural inattention test. One month post-stroke, this difference was no longer significant. Recovery of VSN and VFD was maximal in the first month, however VSN recovery continued for up to 12 weeks. Patients with VSN and a VFD on admission had a greater mortality at 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: the presence of a VFD does appear to exacerbate neglect in the acute stroke patient; this effect is no longer seen after 1 month. Recovery of VSN continues independent of a VFD. Patients with neglect and a VFD have an increased mortality, probably because of greater neurological impairment

Keywords: acute/acute stroke/AGE/assessment/association/deficit/effect/ENGLAND/functional/functional outcome/hemisphere/hemisphere stroke/impairment/lower/mortality/neglect/neurological/neuropsychological/outcome/patients/post stroke/post-stroke/PRESS/prognosis/prospective/prospective study/RECOVERY/rehabilitation/right hemisphere/right hemisphere stroke/score/stroke/stroke patient/stroke patients/test/visual/visual field/visual field deficits/visuo-spatial neglect/visuospatial neglect/women

Forster, A., Dowswell, G., Young, J., Sheard, A., Wright, P. and Bagley, P. (1999), Effects of a physiotherapist-led stroke training programme for nurses. Age and Ageing, 2014-07-19 18:44
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