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1. focus on: separable and nonseparable phrasal verbs 12 - 170


1. Alfonso must have ________ ________ thirty pairs of pants before picking one out.
2. Bob got ________ ________ of the bar after he started a fight.
3. You can't trust Marvin at all. He ________ ________ everyone he does business with.
4. I can't reach those books on the top shelf. Would you ________ them ________ for me, please?
5. That sneaky real estate agent ________ me ________ selling her my house for a lot less than it was worth.
6. My parents live between my job and my home, so sometimes on the way home from work I ________ ________ for a visit.
7. Sam's wife didn't want to go camping with him, but he finally ________ her __________ it.
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8. My father-in-law was ________ ________ ________ $800 by a house painter
who took the money but never came back to start painting the house.
9. When I was a child, my mother was on drugs and my father was in jail. That situation didn't ________ ________ a very happy childhood.
10. Carlos ________ ________ the table, and a glass of wine fell on the floor.
11. All you ever do is talk, talk, talk. Will you please ________ ________?
12. It sure was hot yesterday. It must have ________ ________ to 100 degrees.
13. Our daughter has decided to get her nose pierced, and there's no way we can ________ her ________ ________ it.
14. I found my old army uniform in the attic, and I can still ________________ it even though it's twenty-five years old.
15. My teacher caught me cheating on the test today, and he said he's going to call my parents tomorrow to tell them. How am I going to _______ _______ of this mess?
16. I saw a guy today who looked exactly like my dead brother. It really ________ me ________.

48. FOCUS ON: modals and present perfect passive phrasal verbs


In Section 43, we discussed the use of several modal and semimodal auxiliaries in the present perfect. These same modals and semimodals are commonly used in passive sentences. The modal or semimodal is followed by have or the contraction 've, been, and the past participle:

could

+ have + been + past participle

would

+ have + been + past participle

should

+ have + been + past participle

have to

+ have + been + past participle

must

+ have + been + past participle

might

+ have + been + past participle

may

+ have + been + past participle
Let's compare a present perfect active sentence containing a modal with a present perfect passive sentence containing a modal:
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active: ^ Jane might have

switched on

the light. passive: The light might have been

switched on.


As we have seen, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. Also, there is no object in the passive sentence, so the pas­sive phrasal verb cannot be separated. The object of the active sentence can be used in a by phrase:
active: ^ Jane might have

switched on

the light. passive: The light might have been

switched on

(by Jane).
And once again we see that it is not always easy to distinguish between a past participle:
The burglar alarm must have been

switched

off

(by the night manager because he's the only one with a key).
and a participle adjective:
The burglar alarm must have been

switched

off (because if it had been on, everyone in the neighborhood would have heard it when the burglars smashed the window of the jewelry store).

Infinitive


present tense

-ing form

past tense

past participle
^

close down






close down & closes down

closing down

closed down

closed down
2014-07-19 18:44
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