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A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students - 40

* Just as I sat down, the phone rang.
* Just as we were going out, it started to rain.
* I had to leave just as the conversation was getting interesting.
For the past continuous (was getting/were going etc.) see Unit 6.
C. As, when and while
We use as only if two things happen at the same time. We use when (not 'as') if one thing happens after another. Compare when and as:
* When I got home, I had a bath. (not 'as I got home')
* As I walked into the room, the phone started ringing. (= at the same time)
We use as (time) for actions and happenings. As + a situation (not an action) usually means 'because' (see Section A):
* As we were asleep, we didn't hear the doorbell. (=because we were asleep)
* As they live near me, I see them quite often. (=because they live near me)
You cannot use as for time in sentences like this. You have to use while or when:
* The doorbell rang while we were asleep. (not 'as we were asleep')
* Angela got married when she was 23. (not 'as she was 23')
115.1 What does as mean in these sentences? (because), (at the same time as)
1. As they live near us, we see them quite often. (because)
2. Jill slipped as she was getting off the bus. (at the same time as)
3. As I was tired, I went to bed early.
4. Unfortunately, as I was parking the car, I hit the car behind.
5, As we climbed the hill, we got more and more tired.
6. We decided to go out to cat as we had no food at home.
7. As we don't use the car very often, we've decided to sell it.
115.2 (Section A) join a sentence from List A with one from List B. Begin each sentence with As.
A: 1. yesterday was a public holiday
2. it was a nice day
3. we didn't want to wake anybody up
4. the door was open
5. none of us had a watch
B: 1. I walked in
2. we came in very quietly
3. all the shops were shut
4. we didn't know what time it was
5. we went for a walk by the sea
1. _As yesterday was a public holiday, all the shops were shut._
2. ---.
3. ---.
4. ---.
5. ---.
115.3 (Section B) Use as to join a sentence from List A with one from List B.
A: 1. we all waved goodbye to Liz
2. we all smiled
3. I burnt myself
4. the crowd cheered
5. a dog ran out in front of the car
B: 1. we were driving along the road
2. I was taking a hot dish out of the oven
3. she drove away in her ear
4. we posed for the photograph
5. the two teams ran onto the field
1. _We all waved goodbye to Liz as she drove a in her car._
3. ---.
4. ---.
5. ---.
115.4 Put in as or when. Sometimes you can use either as or when.
1. Angela got married _when_ she was 23.
2. My camera was stolen --- I was on holiday.
3. He dropped the glass --- he was taking it out of the cupboard.
4. --- I left school, I went to work in a shop.
5. The train slowed down --- it approached the station.
6. I used to live near the sea --- I was a child.
115.5 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.
1. I saw you as ---.
2. It began to rain just as ---.
3. As I didn't have enough money for a taxi, ---.
4. Just as I took the photograph, ---.
UNIT 116 Like and as
A. Like = 'similar to', 'the same as'. Note that you cannot use as in this way:
* What a beautiful house! It's like a palace. (not 'as a palace')
* 'What does Sandra do?' 'She's a teacher, like me.' (not 'as me')
* Be careful! The floor has been polished. It's like walking on ice. (not 'as walking')
* It's raining again. I hate weather like this. (not 'as this')
In these sentences, like is a preposition. So it is followed by a noun (like a palace), a pronoun (like me/like this) or ~ing (like walking).
You can also say 'like (somebody/something) doing something':
* 'What's that noise?' 'It sounds like a baby crying.'
B. Sometimes like = 'for example':
* Some sports, like motor racing, can be dangerous.
You can also use such as (= for example):
* Some sports, such as motor racing, can be dangerous.
C. We use as (not 'like') before a subject + verb:
* I didn't move anything. I left everything as I found it.
* They did as they promised. (= They did what they promised.)
Compare like and as in these sentences:
* You should have done it like this. (like + pronoun)
* You should have done it as I showed you. (as + subject + verb)
We also say as you know/as I said/as she expected/as I thought etc.:
* As you know, it's Tom's birthday next week. (= you know this already)
* Jane failed her driving test, as she expected. she expected this before)
Note that we say as usual/as always:
* You're late as usual.
D. As can also be a preposition but the meaning is different from like. Compare:
#1 as
* Brenda Casey is the manager of a company. As the manager, she has to make many important decisions. ('As the manager' = in her position as the manager)
* During the war this hotel was used as a hospital. (so it really was a hospital)
* Mary Stone is the assistant manager. Like the manager (Brenda Casey), she also has to make important decisions. ('Like the manager' = similar to the manager)
* Everyone is ill at home. Our house is like a hospital. (it isn't really a hospital)
As (preposition) = 'in the position of', 'in the form of' etc.:
* A few years ago I worked as a bus driver. (not 'like a bus driver')
* We've got a garage but we haven't got a car, so we use the garage as a workshop.
* Many English words (for example, 'work' and 'rain') can be used as verbs or nouns.
* London is all right as a place to visit, but I wouldn't like to live there.
* The news of her death came as a great shock.
We say regard ... as:
* I regard her as my best friend.
116.1 (Sections A, B and Q Put in like or as.
1. It's raining again. I hate weather _like_ this.
2. Jane failed her driving test _as_ she expected.
3. Do you think Carol looks --- her mother?
4. He really gets on my nerves. I can't stand people --- him.
5. Why didn't you do it --- I told you to do it?
6. 'What does Bill do?' 'He's a student --- most of his friends.'
7. Why do you never listen? Talking to you is --- talking to the wall.
8. --- I said yesterday, I'm thinking of changing my job.
9. Tom's idea seemed a good one, so we did --- he suggested.
10. It's a difficult problem. I never know what to do in situations --- this.
11. I'll phone you tomorrow --- usual, OK?
12. This tea is awful. It tastes --- water.
13. Suddenly there was a terrible noise. It was --- a bomb exploding.
14. She's a very good swimmer. She swims --- a fish.
15. I'm afraid I can't meet you on Sunday --- we arranged.
16. We met Keith last night. He was very cheerful --- always.
116.2 (Sections A and D) Complete the sentences using like or as + one of the following:
a beginner blocks of ice a palace a birthday present a problem a child a church winter a tourist guide
1. This house is beautiful. It's _like a palace._
2. Margaret once had a part-time job ---.
3. My feet are really cold. They're ---.
4. I've been learning Spanish for a few years but I still speak ---.
5. 1 wonder what that building with the tower is. It looks ---.
6. My brother gave me this watch --- a long time ago.
7. It's true that we disagree about some things but I don't regard this ---.
8. It's very cold for the middle of summer. It's ---.
9. He's 22 years old but he sometimes behaves ---.
116.3 (All sections) Put in like or as.
1. Your English is very fluent. I wish I could speak --- you.
2. Don't take my advice if you don't want to. You can do --- you like.
3. You waste too much time doing things --- sitting in cafes all day.
4. 1 wish I had a car --- yours.
5. There's no need to change your clothes. You can go out --- you are.
6. My neighbour's house is full of interesting things. It's --- a museum.
7. 1 think I preferred this room --- it was, before we decorated it.
8. When we asked Sue to help us, she agreed immediately --- I knew she would.
9. Sharon has been working --- a waitress for the last two months.
10. While we were on holiday, we, spent most of our time doing energetic things --- sailing, water skiing and swimming.
11. You're different from the other people I know. I don't know anyone --- you.
12. We don't need all the bedrooms in the house, so we use one of them --- a study.
13. --- her father, Catherine has a very good voice.
14. The news that Sue and Jim were getting married came --- a complete surprise to me.
15. At the moment I've got a temporary job in a bookshop. It's OK --- a temporary job but I wouldn't like to do it permanently.
UNIT 117 As if
A. You can use as if to say how somebody or something looks/sounds/feels etc.:
* That house looks as if it's going to fall down.
* Ann sounded as if she had a cold, didn't she?
* I've just come back from holiday but I feel tired and depressed. I don't feel as if I've just had a holiday.
* You look tired. (look + adjective)
You look as if you haven't slept. (look + as if + subject + verb)
* Tom sounded worried. (sound + adjective)
Tom sounded as if he was worried. (sound + as if + subject + verb)
You can use as though instead of as if:
* Ann sounds as though she's got a cold. (= as if she's got a cold.)
B. You can also say It looks/sounds/smells as if (or as though):
* Sandra is very late, isn't she? It looks as if she isn't coming.
* We took an umbrella with us because it looked as if it was going to rain.
* Do you hear that music next door? It sounds as if they're having a party.
* It smells as though someone has been smoking in here.
After It looks/sounds/smells, many people use like instead of as if/as though:
* It looks like Sandra isn't coming.
C. You can use as if with other verbs to say how somebody does something:
* He ran as if he was running for his life.
* After the interruption, the speaker carried on talking as if nothing had happened.
* When I told them my plan, they looked at me as if I was mad.
D. After as if we sometimes use the past when we are talking about the present.
For example:
* I don't like Norma. She talks as if she knew everything.
The meaning is not past in this sentence. We use the past ('as if she knew') because the idea is not real: Norma does not know everything. We use the past in the same way with if and wish (see Unit 38).
Some more examples:
* She's always asking me to do things for her--as if I didn't have enough to do. (I do have enough to do)
* Harry's only 40. Why do you talk about him as if he was an old man? (he isn't an old man)
When you use the past in this way, you can use were instead of was:
* Why do you talk about him as if he were an old man?
* They treat me as if I were (or was) their own son. (I'm not their son)
117.1 Use the sentences in the box to make sentences with as if.
it has just been cut I'm going to be sick he hadn't eaten for a week she was enjoying it she had hurt her leg he meant what he was saying he needs a good rest she didn't want to come
1. Mark looks very tired. He looks _as if he needs a good rest._
2. Sue was walking with difficulty. She looked ---.
3. I don't think he was joking. He looked ---.
4. The grass is very short. It looks ---.
5. Peter was extremely hungry and ate his dinner very quickly.
He ate ---.
6. Carol had a bored expression on her face during the concert.
She didn't look ---.
7. I've just eaten too many chocolates. Now I'm feeling ill.
I feel ---.
8. I phoned Emma and invited her to the party but she wasn't very enthusiastic about it.
She sounded ---.
117.2 What do you say in these situations? Use You look/You sound/I feel as if... Use the words in brackets to make your sentence.
1. You meet Bill. He has a black eye and some plasters on his face.
You say to him: _You look as if you've been in a fight._ (be/a fight)
2. Christine comes into the room. She looks absolutely terrified.
You say to her: What's the matter? You ---. (see/a ghost)
3. Sarah is talking to you on the phone about her new job and she sounds very happy about it.
You say to her: ---. (enjoy/it)
4. You have just run one kilometre. You are absolutely exhausted.
You say to a friend: I ---. (run/a marathon)
117.3 Make sentences beginning It looks as if .../It sounds as if ...
you had a good time there's been an accident they are having an argument it's going to rain she isn't coming we'll have to walk
1. Sandra said she would be here an hour ago. You say: _It looks as if she isn't coming._
2. The sky is full of black clouds. You say: It ---.
3. You hear two people shouting at each other next door.
You say: ---.
4. You see an ambulance, some policemen and two damaged cars at the side of the road.
You say: ---.
5. You and a friend have just missed the last bus home.
You say: ---.
6. Sue and Dave have just been telling you about all the interesting things they did while they were on holiday. You say: ---.
117.4 These sentences are like the ones in Section D. Complete each sentence using as if
1. Brian is a terrible driver. He drives _as if he were_ the only driver on the road.
2. I'm 20 years old, so please don't talk to me --- a child.
3. Steve has only met Nicola once but he talks about her --- a close friend.
4. It was a long time ago that we first met but I remember it --- yesterday.
UNIT 110 For, during and while
A. For and during
We use for + a period of time to say bow long something goes on:
for two hours, for a week, for ages For example:
* We watched television for two hours last night.
* Victoria is going away for a week in September.
* Where have you been? I've been waiting for ages.
* Are you going away for the weekend?
We use during + noun to say when something happens (not how long):
during the film during our holiday during the night
For example:
* I fell asleep during the film.
* We met a lot of people during our holiday.
* The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.
With a 'time word' (for example, the morning/the afternoon/the summer), you can usually say in or during:
2014-07-19 18:44
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