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1. breakthrough - Contents 8 to the teacher 9


1. breakthrough

p.v. When you use force to go through a wall or other barrier, you

break through

it.
The thieves

broke through

the wall of the jewelry store.
The attackers couldn't

break through

the thick walls of the fort.

2. breakthrough

p.v. When you cannot do something because of a problem and you find a way to solve or eliminate the problem, you

breakthrough.


After the problem of tissue rejection is

broken through,

organ transplants will become more common.
It took three days of negotiation, but we finally

broke through

the deadlock.

breakthrough

n. An important discovery or development that solves or eliminates a problem that is preventing you from doing something is a

breakthrough.


Dr. Wood announced an important

breakthrough

in the search for a cure for AIDS.
^ figure on

figure on & figures on figuring on figured on figured on


1. figure on

p.v. When you

figure on

something, you expect it or plan for it.
/ didn't

figure on

such cold weather. I wish I'd brought a coat.
You can

figure on

spending a least hundred bucks if you're going to that restaurant.
134

Infinitive



past participle

present tense
-ing form
past tense
get off





get off & gets off
getting off
got off
gotten/got off

1. get off

p.v. When you

get off

a bus, airplane, or train, you leave it.
The bus stopped and I

got off.


You can't

get off

the train while it's moving.

2. get off

p.v. When you are standing, lying, or sitting on something, such as a horse, bicycle, motorcycle, stage, platform, or piece of furniture, and you step down from it onto the ground, you

get off

it.
You're so lazy. Why don't you

get off

the couch and help me?

Get off

your bicycle and come inside.

3. get off

p.v. When you are standing within an area of ground, or on something that covers an area of ground, and you move to the side of it and step off of it, you

get off

it.
The referee told the player to

get off

the field. You're standing on our beach blanket —

get off

it!

4. get... off

p.v. When you

get

something

off,

you remove it even though it may be difficult.
/ can't

get

this paint off my hands. The top of this bottle is on so tight I cannot

get

it

off.


5. get... off

p.v. When you

get

a certain period of time

off,

you are allowed by your employer to miss work during this period.
Pregnant women usually

get

three months

off

with pay. Could I

get

tomorrow morning

off

to go to the doctor?

6. get off

p.v. When you

get off,

or

get off

work, you finish that day's work and leave your place of employment.
Sally said she wouldn't

get off

work until 6:00. I haven't

gotten

off early all week.

7. get... off

p.v. When you do something wrong but are not punished, or you are punished only lightly for it, you

get off.

Someone who helps you to avoid punishment

gets

you

off.


He killed four people, but he

got off

with only three years in jail. If his lawyer hadn't been so incompetent, he would have

gotten

him off with a lighter sentence.

8. get off

p.v. When you stop talking on the telephone, you

get off

the telephone.

Get off

the phone — I need to use it! It's late, we'd better

get off

the phone.
135

Infinitive


present tense
-ing form
past tense
past participle
^ go beyond




go beyond & goes beyond
going beyond
went beyond
gone beyond

^ 1. go beyond

p.v. When people or things are better or worse, or do something in a better or worse way than is normal or expected, they

go beyond

what is normal or expected.
Did you say Jackson's new book is good? I think it

goes beyond

good — it's fantastic! Sam's wife discovered that he wasn't just friends with his secretary; their relationship

went

way

beyond

friendship.
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