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The Verb "to be" - 53

^ 2.4.2 THE COMPLEX SUBJECT
(the Nominative-with-the-lnfinitive)


The Complex Subject consists of a noun/pronoun (in the nominative case) and the
Infinitive. It is considered to be the subject of the sentence, its Russian equivalent is in most
cases a subordinate clause.

П Laser is known to be used in medicine.


Известно, что лазер широко используется в медицине.


The Complex Subject is used with:
1. the following groups of
verbs in the Passive:

он вошел в сад, и вышла чтобы встретить его. 9. Я увидела, что он взволнован, и спросила его, в чем дело. 10. Я увидел, что текст очень трудный, и опасался, что не смогу перевести его. 11. Я видел, что такси остановилось у двери. 12. Я видел, как она вышла из дома. 13. Я почувствовал, что кто-то дотронулся до моей руки. 14. Я увидел, что в коробке ничего не было. 15. Я увидел, что стекло разбито. 16. Вы слышали, как он спросил меня об этом? 17. Я бы хотел посмотреть (увидеть), как она танцует. 18. Никто не слышал, как он сказал это. 19. Я слышал, как профессор упомянул об этих фактах в своей лекции.
Ех. 12. (В, С) Translate the following sentences.
1. Я хотел бы, чтобы вы объяснили мне эту задачу. 2. Что вы хотите, чтобы я сделал для вас? 3. Вы слышали когда-нибудь, как он говорит по-французски? 4. Я слышал, что он переехал в Москву. 5. Они не видели, как я взял кольцо. 6. Никто не ожидал, что они уедут так скоро. 7. Я знаю, что он честный человек. 8. Я увидел, что письмо не было подписано. 9. Хочет ли он, чтобы мы помогли ему? 10. Вы слышали, как он выступал (говорил) вчера на собрании? 11. Я видела, как она подошла к окну и открыла его. 12. Я считаю, что он лучший инженер на нашем заводе. 13. Он не хочет, чтобы его дочь ехала в Кострому. 14. Я не хотел, чтобы его пригласили на вечер. 15. Я думаю, что сегодня вечером вы услышите, как она поет. 16. Она чувствовала, как дрожит ее голос. 17. Я не ожидал, что меня пошлют в Лондон. 18. Я не люблю, когда мне напоминают несколько раз об одном и том же. 19. Мой сын просил повести его в зоопарк. 20. Я слышал, как его имя было упомянуто директором.

Его считали честным и добрым человеком. (Считали, что он...)

Считается, что он был одним из самых популярных писателей своего времени.
the verbs: to say, to report (сообщать), to order, to ask, to allow, to state (заявлять), to announce (объявлять).

to seem/to appear (казаться, по-видимому), to prove/to turn out (оказываться), to happen/to chance (случаться).
^ Negative forms: don't seem
doesn't prove + infinitive didn't happen
is/are not likely + infinitive

Гэворят, что она сейчас работает на заводе. □The delegation is reported to

have left

Moscow. Сообщается, что делегация уже покинула Москву.

engineer.
Он оказался не очень опытным инженером.

время.

NOTES:



  1. an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb
    О They are reported to have finished the construction.

Сообщают, что они уже закончили строительство.

    1. The Infinitive in sentences with the Complex Subject cannot refer to the future except
      with the verbs and word-groups: to expect, to be sure/certain, to be likely.



    1. If the verbs to prove, to seem/to appear (выглядеть, производить впечатление) are followed by adjectives or nouns, the verb to be after them can be omitted.

Он выглядит больным.

Он производит впечатление опытного преподавателя.

COMPARE:


Не

seems

ill. □ Не

seems to be

ill.


Он выглядит больным. Он, кажется, болен.

    1. After the verbs in the Passive Voice the Complex Subject is more characteristic of a literary than a colloquial style, except with the verbs to suppose, to expect, to make.

EXERCISES


Ex. 1. (A, B) Translate the sentences from English into Russian.
1. The river is supposed to flow in this direction. 2. His childhood is said to have been very difficult. 3. You are expected to know these things. 4. He didn't seem to know you. 5. The situation seems to have become difficult. 6. He is said to have owned a very good library. 7. He was told to have organized the whole business. 8. The man doesn't seem to recognize you. 9. She seems to have done it especially for you. 10. You're not supposed to mark other people's books. 11. The actress is said to be very beautiful. 12. She was said to have a wonderful collection of china. 13. This doesn't seem to be the right decision. 14. The man seems to be a stranger here. 15. She seems to be used to the thought that they'll have to move to another flat. 16. It seems to be an interesting comparison.
Ex. 2. Open the brackets, using the correct form of the Infinitive.

I. (A, B)



      1. He seems (to read) since morning. 2. She seems (to work) at his problem since she came here. 3. He appears (to know) French well. He is said (to spend) his youth in Paris.

        1. The enemy was reported (to overthrow) the defence and (to advance) towards the city.

        2. You seem (to look) for trouble. 6. They seemed (to quarrel). I could hear their angry voices. 7. They are supposed (to work) at the problem for the last two months. 8. Her ring was believed (to lose) until she happened (to find) it while cleaning the house. 9. They seemed (to wait) for ages.

      2. (B)



1. She smiled broadly and waved her hand. She seemed (to recognize) me. 2. Even if he is out, you needn't worry. He is sure (to leave) the key under the door-mat. 3. At that time I happened (to work) at my first novel. 4. You won't be likely (to miss) the train if you start right away. 5. Don't cry! Everything is bound (to get) right between you. 6. She lost her head and seemed (to forget) the little English she knew. 7. A young woman is supposed (to write) this

book. 8. You needn't mention it again. He is not likely (to forget) it. 9. He is believed (to teach) by his father. 10. You needn't tell me this. I happened (to give) all the details by Mother. 11. She is expected (to operate) on today. 12. Just look at his hands. He is sure (to work) in the garage.

III. (B, C)


1. He seems (to be satisfied) with the results. 2. It seemed it would take not less than a page (to put) it into words. 3. The book is likely (to publish) and (to appear) on sale pretty soon. It is sure (to sell) well and (to sell) out in no time. 4. The man appears (to know) practically all European languages; he is said (to learn) them while travelling. 5. The river was reported (to overflow) the banks and (to advance) towards the suburbs of the city. 6. You seem (to look) for trouble. 7. The committee is said (to revise) the programme and (to work out) a plan of its realization. 8. The man seemed (to study) me and I felt uneasy in his presence. 9. The book was believed (to lose) until the librarian happened (to find) it during the inventory. 10. The strength of the metal proved (to over-estimate) by the designer. The engineer claimed (to warn) against its use for the purpose as it was likely (to deform) under great load. 11. We seem (to fly) over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land (to see). 12. We don't seem (to acquaint), at least I can't remember having ever met him.
Ex. 3. (A) Practise the following according to the models.
Model 1: A. He doesn't usually play chess.
B. Well, he seems to be playing chess today. He doesn't usually...
1. do the shopping. 2. wait for his wife. 3. bring his wife flowers. 4. collect the children from school. 5. help his wife. 6. talk to his mother-in-law. 7. quarrel with his neighbours. 8. play with the children. 9. walk to work. 10. carry his wife's parcels.
Model 2: (A group of tourists visits an old palace, they ask their guide questions about its owner. The guide doesn't seem to be sure about the details.)

  1. Did he live here? (most of his life)

  2. Yes, he seems to have lived here most of his life. Yes, he is said to have lived here most of his life. Yes, he is supposed to have lived here most of his life.

1. Did he build any other houses? (several) 2. Did he employ a large staff? (huge) 3. Did he hunt? (when he was a young man) 4. Did he keep race-horses? (all his life) 5. Did they win races? (quite a lot of) 6. Did he sell his other houses? (two of them) 7. Did he quarrel with neighbours? (some of them) 8. Did he leave the country? (after the second duel) 9. Did he die abroad? (in Paris)
Ex. 4. (B) Paraphrase the following sentences using the Complex Subject.
Model 1: It seemed that he knew the subject well.
He seemed to know the subject well. 1. It happened that they met that very day. 2. It proved that there were some broken cups in the case. 3. It seems that the play has made a deep impression on him. 4. It proved that he was a very experienced worker. 5. It appears that the house was built in the 18th century. 6. It happened that there was a doctor there at that time. 7. It appears that there

are different opinions on this subject. 8. It happened that he was at home at that time. 9. It seems that there is a great difference between these two samples.
Model2: It is reported that the delegation has left London.
The delegation is reported to have left London. 1. It is known that he has a large collection of pictures. 2. It may be said that the new theatre is the most beautiful building in the town. 3. It was reported that the ship had arrived in Odessa. 4. It can't be considered that the results of the experiment are bad. 5. It is expected that many people will attend the meeting. 6. It is believed that there is hope of reaching an agreement. 7. It is said that the expedition has reached Vladivostok. 8. It is considered that this mine is the best in the district. 9. It can be expected that the weather will improve soon. 10. It can't be expected that the Petersburg football team will win. 11. It is said that there are many difficulties in solving this problem.
Ex. 5. (B) Translate the words in brackets.
1. He is thought (был) a very good singer. 2. They are expected (пошлют) a reply today. 3. They are said (переехали) to a new flat. 4. Who is supposed (подпишет) the letter? 5. The doctor is supposed (прописал) you something. 6. The results of the experiment are believed (были) very good. 7. The new instrument is expected (поможет) scientists solve many important problems. 8. The members of the committee are understood (пришли) to an agreement. 9. He is said (предложил) them his services. 10. In the 19th century the dark areas on the Mars were thought (были) seas. 11. We were supposed (проведем) the day on board the ship. 12. The seamen were not supposed (сойдут) ashore that day. 13. The expedition is said (сделала) a very important discovery. 14. They were expected (пройдут) 300 miles that day. 15. She is known (интересовалась) in the subject. 16. They were heard (согласились) to do it. 17. The ship is expected (прибудет) here on Tuesday. 18. They are supposed (преследовали) him. 19. They were believed (знали) the secret all the time.
Ex. 6. (В, C) Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Видели, как она писала письмо. 2. Думали, что это она пишет эти письма.

    1. Предполагали, что она написала это письмо. 4. Наверняка она и сейчас пишет письмо. 5. Конечно, она написала это письмо. 6. Вряд ли она пишет эти письма. 7. Вряд ли она написала письмо. 8. Конечно, письмо уже написано. 9. Конечно, она его уже написала. 10. Оказалось, что она написала стихотворение. 11. Случайно она написала хорошее стихотворение.

Ex. 7. (В, С) Translate the following sentences.
I
1. Он, кажется, сердится на меня. 2. Он, кажется, болен. 3. Он, кажется, болел.

    1. Они, по-видимому, пользовались этим словарем. 5. Он, кажется, знает ее хорошо. 6. Они, по-видимому, очень хорошо поняли это правило. 7. Кажется, все студенты читали эту статью. 8. Она, кажется, знает три иностранных языка. 9. Кажется, эта статья была опубликована в "Правде" на прошлой неделе. 10. Он, по-видимому, удовлетворен результатом своей работы. 11. Он, кажется, уехал на юг.


1. Говорят, что он в Москве. 2. Ожидают, что договор будет подписан на этой неделе.

      1. Сообщают, что экспедиция выехала 15 мая. 4. Известно, что он придерживается другого мнения по этому вопросу. 5. Считают, что он один из лучших летчиков нашей страны. 6. Говорят, что этот дом был построен около двухсот лет тому назад. 7. Он, кажется, знает этот предмет очень хорошо. 8. Он, по-видимому, очень много читал по этому вопросу. 9. Эта книга, по-видимому, очень интересная.


1. Эта книга, по-видимому, была переведена очень опытным переводчиком. 2. Коробка, кажется, пустая. 3. Этот вопрос, по-видимому, представляет для них большой интерес.

      1. Казалось, что он доволен нашей работой. 5. Все, казалось, были удивлены, когда услышали это. 6. Дмитрий, кажется, сидит в читальном зале. 7. Он, кажется, ждет вас внизу. 8. Он оказался очень хорошим спортсменом. 9. Они оказались очень опытными преподавателями. 10. Эта задача оказалась очень трудной. 11. Я случайно встретил его в Сочи. 12. Я случайно слышал, как он спросил ее об этом.

Ex. 8. (А, В) Translate the sentences from English into Russian.
1. The play is likely to have been written by Shaw. 2. He is certain to get the letter tomorrow. 3. They are most likely to have begun this work. 4. He is sure to enjoy himself at the party.

      1. The agreement is certain to have been signed. 6. They are certain to return soon. 7. They are very likely to take part in this work. 8. There are unlikely to be any objections to our proposal. 9. This house is likely to have been built at the beginning of the 19th century. 10. He is sure to be appointed manager of the factory. 11. He is sure to like his new work. 12. They are sure to have returned to Moscow.

Ex. 9. (A, B) Paraphrase the sentences using the model.
Model: It is not likely that they will return soon.
They are not likely to return soon. 1. It appears unlikely that the experiment will give good results. 2. It is likely that he has accepted their offer. 3. It is certain that they will come to Moscow. 4. It appears likely that he will recover soon. 5. It is likely that there will be a heated discussion on this question. 6. It is unlikely that the meeting will be postponed. 7. It is very likely that his article will be published in the newspaper. 8. It is certain that they will be here on Monday. 9. It is likely that there will be a good wheat crop in the Ukraine this year. 10. It was not likely that the telegram would reach them in time. 11. It seemed unlikely that the price of these raw materials would rise. 12. It is likely that the conference will be held in Moscow. 13. It is likely that the goods were shipped on Monday. 14. It seems likely that an agreement will be reached in the near future. 15. It seems likely that there will be a storm on the sea.
Ex. 10. (В, C) Translate the sentences from Russian into English.
I
1. Очень вероятно, что делегация уже уехала из Москвы. 2. Самолет, вероятно, уже прибыл в Прагу. 3. Он, наверное, придет вечером. 4. Они, наверное, согласятся принять участие в этой работе. 5. Они, наверное, согласятся на ваши условия. 6. Вы непременно получите ответ от него на этих днях. 7. Он непременно получит приз за

свою картину. 8. Его книга будет непременно напечатана в России. 9. Они, вероятно, не приедут в мае. 10. Они, вероятно, не получили зарплату сегодня. 11. Театр, вероятно, не поедет в Лондон в этом сезоне. 12, Этот вопрос, вероятно, не будет обсуждаться сегодня.
II
1. Правила, вероятно, изменятся. 2. Очень вероятно, что эта проблема будет обсуждена на заседании правительства. 3. Вряд ли он придет сюда. 4. .Очень вероятно, что собрание закончится через час. 5. Он, вероятно, будет дома в шесть часов. 6. Эти меры будут, вероятно, приняты. 7. Они вряд ли скоро вернутся. 8. Очень вероятно, что он знает, где работает Андрей Иванов. 9. Товары, вероятно, будут доставлены без опоздания. 10. Очень вероятно, что завтра будет хорошая погода. 11. Маловероятно, что они закончат свою работу до конца мая. 12. Этот опыт, вероятно, будет успешным.
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